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{"uz":"{\"uz\":\"

Mahmudxo\\u2018ja\\nBehbudiyning tarjimai holi<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

Buyuk\\nma'rifatparvar alloma, yozuvchi, dramaturg va jamoat arbobi Mahmudxo\\u2018ja Behbudiy\\n1875 yilning 19-yanvarida Samarqand shahri Siyob tumanidagi Baxshitepa qishlog\\u2019ida,\\nruhoniy ziyoli oilasida dunyoga keladi. Otasi imom-xatib, o\\u2018qimishli, ma'rifatli\\nkishi bo\\u2018lib ilm-fanga ihlos bilan qaragan. Oiladagi muhit undagi ma'rifat, adabiyot\\nva ijtimoiy hayotga bo\\u2018lgan qiziqishning kuchayishiga imkon tug\\u2019dirdi.<\\\/span> <\\\/span>Behbudiyning\\notasi islom huquqshunosligi bo\\u2018yicha yirik mutaxassis bo\\u2018lib, bu borada ko\\u2018plab\\nkitob va risolalar yaratgan edi. <\\\/span>Bu, o\\u2018z navbatida, Mahmudxo\\u2018jaga ta'sir\\no\\u2018tkazmay qolmadi. U keyinchalik bu haqda so\\u2018zlab, maqolalaridan birida otasi yozgan\\n\\u00abHidoya\\u00bb, \\u00abIslom huquqiga sharhlar\\u00bb asarining o\\u2018z taqdirida katta rol o\\u2018ynaganini\\nalohida qayd etgan. Mahmudxo\\u2018ja 6-7 yoshlarga yetganda ziyoli tog\\u2019alari-Muhammad\\nSiddiq va Mulla Odil yordamida xat savod chiqardi.<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>

1893\\nyilda Behbudiyning otasi vafot etadi va oila boqish uning o\\u2018ziga qoladi. Bu yillarda\\nChashmaob qishlog\\u2019ida qozilik qilayotgan tog\\u2019asi Mahmudxo\\u2018jani mirzolikka\\ntayinlaydi. O\\u2019z vazifasini vijdonan ado etgan Mirzo tezda el-yurt e'tiboriga\\ntushadi, obro\\u2018si oshadi. Ilm olishni uzluksiz davom ettirib, endi muftiylikka\\noid shariat qoidalarini chuqur o\\u2018rganishga bel bog\\u2019laydi.1893-1900 yillarda\\nMakkaga haj safariga boradi va u yerdan mufti unvonini olib qaytadi.<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

Vaqtli\\nmatbuot sahifalarida zamonasining dolzarb mavzulariga bag\\u2019ishlangan ijtimoiy-siyosiy,\\ntarixiy-adabiy maqolalari bilan faol ishtirok etadi. Uning 1910 yillar\\nTurkiston matbuotida 300 dan ortiq maqolalari e'lon qilingan. Ushbu maqolalarning\\nmarkazida maktab, maorif, madaniyat va ma'rifatparvarlik g\\u2019oyalarining targ\\u2019iboti\\nturadi.<\\\/span><\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/span><\/p>

1912-1913\\nyillarda Behbudiy Samarqandda \\u00abSamarqand\\u00bb gazetasi va \\u00abOyna\\u00bb jurnaliga asos\\nsoladi. U 1914 - yilda yana Turkiya, Misrga borib, u yerdan muhim kitoblar, o\\u2018quv\\nqo\\u2018llanmalarini olib keladi, yangi usuldagi maktab dasturi ustida<\\\/span> <\\\/span>ishlashga\\nkirishadi. 1918 yilda boshlang\\u2019ich sinf o\\u2018quvchilari uchun \\\"Yangi hisob\\\"\\ndarsligini yozib, o\\u2018z nashriyotida chop ettiradi. 1911 yilda uning\\nshov-shuvlarga sabab bo\\u2018lgan \\\"Padarkush\\\" drammasi yaratiladi.<\\\/span> <\\\/span>Biroq\\nu turli to\\u2018siqlarga uchrab, \\u00abjadidlar rahnamosi\\u00bb, \\u00abdahriy\\u00bb deb e'lon qilinadi.\\n1919 yilda Behbudiy Shaxrisabzda Buxoro amiri amaldorlari tomonidan jadid va\\nxalq josusi deb, qamoqqa olinadi, uni ikki oy zindonda saqlashadi. Shundan\\nso\\u2018ng Qarshida vahshiylarcha qatl etiladi.<\\\/span> <\\\/span>Behbudiy\\no\\u2018zbek va fors-tojik tillarida ikki yuzdan ortiq maqola va asarlar yaratgan. Qarshi\\nshahri 1920-1930 yillarda Behbudiy nomi bilan atalgan.<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>

 <\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

\\\"\\nBehbudiy kitob savdosi va kutubxona ishining asoschisi\\\"<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

Behbudiy\\n(1875-1919) 20-asr boshlarida Turkiston xalqlari ma'rifati, madaniyati, tarixi,\\niqtisodi, savdo-tijorati, kelajagi haqida juda katta g\\u2019amxo\\u2018rlik qilgan, butun\\nhayotiyu, faolnyatini shu xalq baxt-saodati uchun kurashga bag\\u2019ishlagan buyuk\\najdodlarimizdan biridir...<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

O\\u2018z\\nhayoti, faoliyati bilan Turkiston xalqlari tarixida milliy uyg\\u2018onish deb\\natalgan mazkur jarayonga zo\\u2018r ijobiy ta'sir ko\\u2018rsatgan Behbudiy tez orada katta\\nobro\\u2018-e'tiborga ega bo\\u2018ldi.<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

20 asr\\nboshlaridagi birinchi avlodga mansub ziyolilarimizning ko\\u2018plariga ustozlik qilgan,\\nta'sir ko\\u2018rsatgan. Atoqli davlat arbobi Fayzulla Xo\\u2018jayev Behbudiy iste'dodi va\\nqobiliyatiga. bilim doirasi kengligiga tan berib yozgan edi: \\\"Buxoro va Turkistondagi\\no\\u2018zbek jadid tashkilotlari... bir qancha qulayliklarga erishish uchun butun kuchlarini\\nsarfladilar. Bu borada Mahmudxo\\u2018ja Behbudiy nomini eslamasdan o\\u2018tib bo\\u2018lmaydi.\\nSiyosiy, ijtimoiy faoliyati va bilimining kengligi jihatidan Turkistonning\\no\\u2018sha vaqtdagi jadidlardan unga teng kela oladigan kishisi bo\\u2018lmasa\\nkerak\\\".<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

Turkistonda\\njadidchilik harakatining yetakchilaridan biri, yangi davr milliy madaniyatining\\nasoschisi, atoqli dramaturg, publitsist, din va jamoat arbobi Mahmudxo\\u2018ja Behbudiy\\nmilliy kutubxonachilik ishi, noshirligi va kitob savdosining rivojlanishiga, oddiy\\nxalq o\\u2018rtasida ilmiy bilimlarni tarqatish ishiga ulkan hissa qo\\u2019shdi. Mahmudxo\\u2019ja\\nBehbudiy hayoti davomida yuksak darajada bilimdonlik, xalqqa ma'rifat va ziyo\\ntarqatish uchun o\\u2018zining bor kuchi va hayotini baxshida etishga intilgan. Behbudiy\\nshunchaki ma'rifatchilikning nazariyotchisi va targ\\u2019ibotchisi emas, balki butun\\nTurkiston zaminida axborot va bilimlar tarqatishning izchil tizimini yaratgan\\nshaxs edi. Uning birgina publitsistik merosi har yil hisob kitoblarga qaraganda\\n200 tadan 300 tagacha maqolani o\\u2018z ichiga olgan.<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

 <\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

1913\\nyil apreldan Behbudiy \\u00abSamarqand\\u00bb gazetasini chiqara boshlaydi. Gazeta o\\u2018zbek\\nva tojik tillarida, xaftada ikki marta chop etilar edi. \\u00abSamarqand\\u00bb gazetasi\\ndastlab ikki sahifadan iborat bo\\u2018lsa, keyinchalik to\\u2018rt sahifada chiqa\\nboshladi. Ko\\u2019p o\\u2018tmay moddiy tanqislik tufayli nashr to\\u2018xtadi. Shu yil 20\\navgustdan Behbudiy \\u00abOyna\\u00bb jurnalini chiqara boshladi. Haftalik, suratli bu\\njurnal asosan o\\u2018zbek tilida bo\\u2018lib, unda she'rlar, maqolalar (forscha),\\ne'lonlar (ruscha) ham berib borildi. \\u00abOyna\\u00bb jurnali 1915 yil 15 iyungacha nashr\\netilgan. Jurnal taxririyati uning bosh muxarriri Mahmudxuja Behbudiyning yangi\\nshahardagi uyida joylashgan edi. Jurnal nafaqat Turkiston bo\\u2018ylab, balki\\nKavkaz, Tatariston, Eron, Afg\\u2019oniston, Hindiston , Turkiyagacha tarqalgandi.<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

Shu\\nyillarda Mahmudxuja Behbudiyning noshirlik, kitobat ishi tashkilotchisi va kitob\\nsavdosi bilimdoni sifatidagi ham qobiliyati namoyon bo\\u2018ldi. Chunonchi, 1913 yilda\\nu o\\u2018z xususiy nashriyotini ochadi va uni otasining ismi bilan \\u00abNashriyoti Behbudiya\\u00bb\\ndeb nomlaydi. Ayni vaqtda Behbudiy kitob do\\u2018konlari tarmog\\u2019ini tashkil etish bo\\u2018yicha\\nkatta ish olib boradi, Toshkent, Samarqand, Buxoro, Andijon, Qo\\u2018qon va Namangan\\nshaharlarida kitob do\\u2018konlari ochdi. Samarqanddagi kitob do\\u2018koni uning o\\u2018z\\nuyida joylashgan edi.<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

Behbudiy\\ntomonidan Samarqandda ommaviy kutubxonaning tashkil etilishi ham Turkiston madaniy\\nhayotida jiddiy hodisa bo\\u2018ldi. Kutubxona Samarqandning ruslar yashaydigan\\nqismida joylashgan bo\\u2019lib, \\u00abKutubxonai Bexbudiy\\u00bb deb atalar edi. Kitobxonadan\\ntashqari bu yerda keng va shinam qiroatxona ham mavjud edi. Behbudiyning\\nnevarasi Nodim Behbudiyning xotirlashicha, kitob yoki gazeta-jurnallar o\\u2018qish\\nuchun qiroatxonaga tashrif  <\\\/span>buyurgan har\\nbir kishiga, Mahmudxo\\u2018ja Behbudiyning shaxsiy ko\\u2018rsatmasiga binoan, qaynoq,\\nshakarli choy tortilgan. Behbudiy har qanday aqliy, ilmiy mehnat chog\\u2019ida qand\\nmiya va xotiraga quvvat bo\\u2018ladi, deb hisoblagan. Bu Mahmudxo\\u2018ja Behbudiy naqadar\\ndilkash, fidoyi inson bo\\u2018lganini, har qanday aqliy faoliyatga hamda bilimga\\nintiluvchi odamlarga qanchalik hurmat va e'tibor bilan qaraganini yana bir\\nkarra isbotlaydi.<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/span><\/p>

\\u00abKutubxonai\\nBexbudiy\\u00bb kutubxona uslublari bilan bir qatorda, kitob savdosi vazifalarini ham\\nbajarar edi. Soddaroq qilib aytganda, bu yangi tipdagi muassasa -kutubxona do\\u2018kon\\nedi. Mazkur muassasaga tashrif buyurgan har bir kishi o\\u2018ziga ma'qul bo\\u2018lgan istalgan\\nkitobni kutubxonaning alohida fondidan pulga sotib olishi mumkin bo\\u2018lgan. Bu fondda\\njamlangan kitoblarning bir qismini Mahmudxo\\u2018ja Behbudiy o\\u2018zining 1899-1900 yillardagi\\nva 1914 yilgi haj safarlaridan keltirgan bo\\u2018lib, qolgan kitoblar esa \\u00abKutubxona\\nBehbudiy\\u00bb manziliga dunyoning turli burchaklaridan, Rossiya imperiyasining Peterburg,\\nQozon, Boqchasaroy, Boku, Orenburg shaharlaridan, shuningdek, Eron, Turkiya, Afg\\u2019oniston,\\nHindiston, Misr,<\\\/span> <\\\/span>Livandan  \\n<\\\/span>yuborilgan  <\\\/span> <\\\/span>edi.  \\n<\\\/span>O\\u2018sha   <\\\/span>davrda   <\\\/span>turli  \\n<\\\/span>mamlakatlardan   <\\\/span>bunday   <\\\/span>kitob \\u00abeksporti\\u00bbni uyushtirish oson ish\\nemasdi.<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/p>

Bu kishidan\\nomilkorlikni, tadbirkorlikni, ishbilarmonlik o\\u2018quvini, kitob marketingi va menejmenti\\nsohasida chuqur bilimlarni, keng xalqaro aloqalar va katta moddiy imkoniyatlarni\\ntalab etardi.<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

\\u00abKutubxonai\\nBehbudiy\\u00bb kitob fondining o\\u2018zagi va kitob do\\u2018koni haqida batafsil ma'lumotni Mahmudxo\\u2018ja\\nBehbudiy tomonidan nashr etilgan \\u00abOyna\\u00bb jurnali sahifalaridan, aniqrog\\u2019i jurnal\\nsonlari muqovalarining ichki va tashqi tomonida berilgan e'lonlardan olish mumkin\\nbo\\u2018lgan. Jurnal muqovalarida vaqti-vaqti bilan Behbudiy kitob dukonida sotuvga\\nqo\\u2018yilgan, kutubxona fondida mavjud bo\\u2018lgan kitoblarning ro\\u2018yxatlari va\\ne'lonlar berib borilardi. Mazkur ro\\u2018yxatlarni tahlil qilish Behbudiy\\nkutubxonasi va kitob savdosi fondining tematik va tipologik tuzilishi haqida\\ntasavvur hosil qilish imkonini beradi.<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

Bu kutubxonada\\ntarix (umumiy tarix, jahon tarixi, alohida mintaqalar va mamlakatlar tarixi, islomgacha\\nbo\\u2018lgan davrdagi sivilizatsiyalar tarixi, musulmon madaniyati tarixi), geografiya\\n(fizik geografiya, jahon geografiyasi, Rossiya geografiyasi, Yaqin, O\\u2018rta va Uzoq\\nSharq mamlakatlari geografiyasi)ga oid kitoblarga, adabiy-badiiy kitoblarga (turkiy\\nva fors tillaridagi to\\u2018plamlarda jamlangan mumtoz va hozirgi zamon she'riyati, nasri\\nnamunalariga), dramaturgiya, pyesalar, sahna asarlarinnng nashr etilgan matnlariga\\n(jurnalda ular \\u00abtiatru risolasi\\u00bb deb nomlangan), joriy jahon siyosati va mintaqaviy\\nsiyosat, jamiyatshunoslikka oid nashrlarga, umumjahon madaniyati haqida ma'lumot\\nberuvchi (asosan Yevropa tillaridan tarjima qilingan), Misr, Livan, Hindiston, Rossiya,\\nTurkiya, Yunoniston, Turkiston, Yevropa tabiati, shahar va qishloqlari manzaralarining\\nrangli rasmlari, imoratlari, ko\\u2018chalari va kishilarining suratlari, mazkur mamlakatlarning\\nhamda Afrika, Shimoliy Amerika, Janubiy, Amerika, Yevro-Osiyo qit'alari jug\\u2019rofiy\\nxaritalari va atlaslari jamlangan kitoblarga duch kelish mumkin edi. Tabiiy va\\nijtimoiy fan sohalari majmuiga oid monografiyalar va ilmiy-ommabop nashrlar\\n(jurnalda ular arabchada \\u00abfununi mutanave'\\u00bb deb nomlangan) ro\\u2018yxati alohida\\najratilgan. Bu ro\\u2018yxatga tibbiyot va fiziologiyaga oid kitoblar, ko\\u2018rgazmali qo\\u2018llanmalar,\\nodamning asab, oshqozon, qon aylanish sistemalari, suyak tuzilishi\\noftalmologiyasi jadval va atlaslari, kimyo, tabiatshunoslik, kosmografiya,\\nzoologiya, botanika, kulturologiya, turli xalqlar etnografiyasiga oid kitoblar,\\nhar xil ilmiy kashfiyotlar (masalan, fotografiya, aviatsiya, sinematograf, avtomobil)\\nhaqidagi risolalar kiritilgan.<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

\\u00abOyna\\u00bb\\njurnalining 1913-1915 yillarda chiqqan har bir sonida \\u00abKutubxonai Behbudiya\\u00bbda o\\u2018qishga\\ntavsiya etilgan va kutubxona qoshidagi kitob do\\u2018konida sotilgan abiyotlar ro\\u2018yxati\\ne'lon qilinar edi. Agar Mahmudxo\\u2018ja Behbudiy tomonidan boshqa shaharlarda ochilgan\\nkitob do\\u2018konlari kitoblarni Samarqand shahridan markazlashtirilgan tartibda olib\\nturganini hisobga olsak, Behbudiyga har yoqdan qancha ko\\u2018p kitoblar yuborilib turilganligi,\\nshuningdek, Behbudiy tomonidan butun Turon zamin bo\\u2018ylab tarqatilgan adabiyotlar\\nko\\u2018lami haqida tasavvur hosil qilishimiz qiyin emas. Zotan, har bir nomdagi bosma\\nmahsuloti Behbudiyga o\\u2018nlab, ba'zan esa, hatto yuzlab nusxalarda yuborilar edi,\\n\\u00abKutubxonai Behbudiya\\u00bb fondi va kitob do\\u2018konidagi adabiyotlarning qariyb uchdan\\nikki qismini tarixga oid kitoblar tashkil etganligi tarixni bilishga Behbudiy qanchalik\\nkatta e'tibor berganligini ko\\u2018rsatadi.<\\\/o:p><\\\/span><\\\/p>\\n\\n<\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

 <\\\/o:p><\\\/span>S.Mirvaliyev  <\\\/span>O\\u2019zbek adiblari 2007 yil<\\\/span><\\\/p>\",\"uzc\":\"<\/span><\/span><\/o:p><\/span><\/p>

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