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Daniyalik romannavis Xenrik Pontoppidan tavallud topgan kun
1857-07-24

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Daniyalik romannavis Xenrik Pontoppidan 1857 yilning\\n24 iyul kuni Yutland yarim orolidagi Fredsrisii shaharchasida tavallud topgan.\\nAsli daniyalik ziyolilar avlodidan bo'lgan Dines Pontoppidan va Mariya\\nOksenbellar barpo etgan oila juda katta edi. Xenrik oiladagi o'n olti\\nfarzandning to'rtinchisi bo'lib dunyoga kelgan. Xenrik olti yoshga to'lganida\\noila Yutlandiya markazidagi Randers shahriga ko'chib keladi, biroz o'tgach,\\nshahar Prussiya va Avstriya qo'shinlari tomonidan bosib olinadi. Pontoppidanlar\\noilasini bir narsaga zoriqib yashagan deyish qiyin, ammo ularning hayot tarzi\\njuda oddiy va kamtarona edi. Pontoppidan o'ziga zamondosh tarzda shakllanib\\nborayotgan Daniya demokratiyasiga o'z hissasini qo'shish niyatida mo'handis\\nbo'lishga qaror qiladi va <\\\/span><\\\/span>o\\u2019<\\\/span><\\\/span>rta makabni tamomlagach, Kopengagen politexnika\\ninstitutiga o'qishga kiradi. U muzeylar va rasmlar galereyalariga borar va\\no'sha paytda poytaxtda eng mashhur hisoblangan ikki notiqning ma'ruzalariga\\nqatnardi. Ulardan biri pastor Frimodt bo'lib, ma'ruzalarida jahannamning\\nqo'rqinchli tarifini keltirib, o'z tinglovchilarini vahimaga solar, ikkinchisi,\\nGeorg Brandes <\\\/span><\\\/span>y<\\\/span><\\\/span>etuk tanqidchi va tarixchi bo'lib, bu olim \\u201cqiziquvchan Pontoppidanga\\nulkan ta'sir ko'rsata olgan. U vaqti kelib yozuvchining ko'zga ko'ringan\\nasarlaridan biri sanalmish \\u201cJannatmonand <\\\/span><\\\/span>y<\\\/span><\\\/span>er\\u201d trilogiyasidagi bosh\\nqahramon Emmanuelning prototipiga ham aylangan. 1877 yilda Xenrik Shveysariyaga\\nyo'l oladi, bir qator ocherklar yozadi. Ayni sh<\\\/span><\\\/span>u<\\\/span><\\\/span> yillari u yozuvchi\\nbo'lishga, ijod yo'lidan borishga astoydil qaror qiladi. 1879 yilda u\\nPolitexnika institutidan ketadi va Frerslevedagi dehqonlar maktabida o'qituvchi\\nbo'lib ishga joylashadi. Bu maktabni uning akasi Morten ochgan edi. \\u201cHammasidan\\nham ko'ra, meni kambag'allarning hayoti qiziqtirar va, ayniqsa, tengsizlik,\\nadolatsizlikdan qiynalar edim\\u201d. - deb yozgan edi yozuvchi o'z esdaliklarida <\\\/span><\\\/span>o\\u2019<\\\/span><\\\/span>sha davr haqida xotirlab.\\n1880 yilning yozida quruvchilar qo'shinida harbiy xizmatda bo'lgan Xenrikning ilk\\nasari olam yuzini ko'radi, \\u201c<\\\/span><\\\/span>\\u0417\\u0430 \\u0440\\u0443\\u0431\\u0435\\u0436\\u043e\\u043c \\u0438 \\u0434\\u043e\\u043c\\u0430\\u201d  <\\\/span>Jurnali uning \\u201cHayotning oxiri\\u201d hikoyasini e<\\\/span><\\\/span><\\\/span>\\u2019<\\\/span><\\\/span>lon qiladi. Asosan\\nhikoyalardan tarkib topgan \\u201cQayrilgan qanotlar\\u201d kitobi ham shu yili nashrdan\\nchiqadi. 1881 yilning dekabr oyida Pontoppidan o'sha qishloq maktabida\\nmuallimlik qilgan paytlarida tanishgan dehqon qizi Mette Mari Xansenga\\nuylanadi. Ular ikki farzandli bo'lishadi. Yosh oila 1884 yilgacha qishloqda\\nhayot kechiradi. Pontoppidan bu erdagi turmush tarzi haqida turli hikoya, qissa\\nva ocherklar yozadi. Yozuvchining Germaniya va Italiya bo'ylab sayohatidan\\nkeyin oila Kopengagenga ko'chib keladi. Bu shaharda adib poytaxtning\\nintellektual va madaniy hayotida faol ishtirok eta boshlaydi. 1883 yilda\\nyozuvchi Grundtvig izdoshlari va injilchilar o'rtasidagi diniy raqobat haqida\\nkatta roman yozish haqida o'ylay boshlaydi. Natijada \\u201cJannatmonand <\\\/span><\\\/span>y<\\\/span><\\\/span>er\\u201d trilogiyasi dunyoga keladi.\\nAsar deh<\\\/span><\\\/span>q<\\\/span><\\\/span>onlar hayotini aniq-tiniq aks ettirgani va ular ruhiyatiga chuqur kirib\\nborgani bilan alo<\\\/span><\\\/span>h<\\\/span><\\\/span>ida o'rin tutadi. Oradan besh yil o'tgach, Xenrik Pontoppidan birinchi\\nxotini bilan nikohini bekor qilib Antuanette Kofudga uylanadi. <\\\/span><\\\/span>Adibning keyingi yirik asari\\nsakkiz tomlik \\u201cOmadli Per\\u201d romani bo'ldi. Undagi bosh qaxramon Per \\u201cJannatmonand\\nyer\\u201ddagi Emmanueldan farqli o'laroq real fikrlovchi, xomxayollardan yiroq odam.<\\\/span><\\\/span> <\\\/span><\\\/span>\\u201cMarhumlar saltanati\\u201d deb\\nnomlangan besh tomlik roman-xronika adibning keyingi eng asosiy uch asaridan\\nbiri bo'lib, bosqichma-bosqich 1912 yildan 1916 yilgacha nashr etilgan.\\nIlgarigi ikki romandan farqli o'laroq ushbu asarda bosh qahramon yo'q. Unda\\nko'plab personajlar ishtirok etadi va keng ijtimoii panorama aks ettirilgan.\\nAsar markazida radikal ruhdagi siyosatchi turadi, u karaxtlikda turgan xalqni\\nuyg'otishga harakat qiladi. Mazkur asar birinchi jahon urushi arafasida va\\nuniig ilk yilarida yozilgan bo'lib muallif bir jihatdan Daniya jamiyatiga toqat\\nqilolmasligini ko'rsatsa, ikkinchidan, uning vatanparvarligi ham bo'rtib\\nko'rinib turadi. Asarni yakunlashga shoshar ekan, yozuvchi shunday deydi: \\u201cMen\\nyozuvchi emasman, ammo sodiq askarman...\\u201d<\\\/span><\\\/span> <\\\/span><\\\/span>. 1917 yilda Karl Gellerup\\nbilan birgalikda Xenrik Pontoppidanga ham adabiyot sohasidagi Nobel mukofoti\\nberilgan. Unga shunday ta'rif beriladi: \\u201cDaniyaning zamonaviy hayotini rostgo'ylik\\nbilan yoritgani uchun\\u201d. Urush tufayli taqdirlash marosimi o'tkazilmay qolib\\nketadi va o'z-o'zidan adib ham Nobel, ma'ruzasi bilan chiqish qilish imkoniga\\nega bo'lmaydi. Pontoppidan keyingi yigirma yil davomida yozishdan, ijod\\nqilishdan to'xtamaydi. Uning bu davrda yaratgan eng esda qolarli asarlarilan\\nbiri besh kitobdan iborat tarjimai hol epopeyalaridir. \\u201cO'smirlik yillari\\u201d\\n(1933), \\u201cVujudning o'zgarishi\\u201d (1936), \\u201cMeros va burch\\u201d (1938), \\u201cOilaviy hayot\\u201d\\n(1940), \\u201cO'zim tomonga yo'l\\u201d (1943) ushbu beshlikni tashkil etadi. Pontoppidan\\n1943 yilda Kopengagenda vafot etadi. Ushbu adib garchi ingliz tilida\\nso'zlashuvchi kitobxon uchun biron jiddiy asar qoldirmagan bo'lsa ham, tanqid\\nolami uni daniyalik yozuvchilar orasida eng kuchlilar qatoriga qo'shib keladi.<\\\/span> <\\\/span>
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Sayt “OPEN WEB” tomonidan tayyorlangan