SHAXSIY KABINETGA KIRISH
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SSENARIYLAR
 Barcha ssenariylar
ARXIV
Avgust 2019
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Izroilda jaz festevali kuni
0000-08-30

{"uz":"\nMahalliy an\u2019analarning shakllanishi va keyingi AQSh\nmusiqasi rivojida xabashlarning musiqa san\u2019ati muhim ahamiyat kasb etgani ma\u2019lum.\nXVII asrdan boshlab Afrikadan majburiy ko\u2018chirilgan erksiz qullar o\u2018zlari bilan\nqadimiy an\u2019analarga boy madaniyatni \u201cYangi Olam\u201d ga olib keldilar va bu madaniyat\nYevropalik ko\u2018chmanchilar madaniyati ta\u2019siriga tushdi. Asosan Amerikaning janubiy\nhududlarida qishloq xo\u2018jaligi ishlarini amalga oshirgan qullar badihago\u2018y shakldagi\nxollers vashauts kabi aytimlarni ijro etganlar. Kechalari esa ibodatga to\u2018plangan\nxabashlar qadimiy marosim aytimlarini, sanolarni (psalmlar), shuningdek, spirichuellarni\nkuylaganlar. Bulardan so\u2018nggisi ilk afro-amerika musiqiy ifodaviy shakllaridan biriga\naylandi. XIX asr oxiri XX asr boshlarida Yevropa va Afrika musiqiy madaniyatlarning\nqorishuvi natijasida AQShning janubiy shtatlarida professional musiqa san\u2019atining\nyangi turi djaz yuzaga keldi. <\/span>J<\/span>az \u2013 inglizcha ko\u2018ngil ochar muzika turi, fransuzchada\n\u2013 valdirash ma\u2019nosini beradi. Boshqa ta\u2019rafda esa 1915 yili Nyu \u2013 York ilk jaz ansablini\ntuzgan <\/span>J<\/span>azbo Braun\nismidan olingan deb ta\u2019kidlanadi. Uning yaratuvchilari va tashuvchilari esa amerikalik\nxabash qullarning avlodlari bo\u2018ldi.  <\/span>\u0410sarning\naniq tuzilishi doirasida ritmik ohang qurilmalarini o\u2018zgartirib turish (badiha qilish)\nva boshqalar. Shu o\u2018rinda xabash xalqining vokal ijrochiligiga muxtasar to\u2018xtalib\no\u2018tishni o\u2018rinli deb bildik. Aytish kerakki, Yevropa vokal ijrochiligiga nisbatan\nAfrika ijrochiligi ko\u2018proq so\u2018z (talafuz ohanglari) bilan bog\u2018liqdir. Chunki xabashlarning\nmusiqiy va so\u2018z talafuz ohanglari orasida deyarli aniq chegarani his etish qiyin.\nMuqim pardadan sirg\u2018anishlar (detonatsiya) va musiqiy kuylashdan tabiiy so\u2018zlashuv\nohanglari (intonatsiya)ga ravon o\u2018tish kabi unsurlar xabashlarning o\u2018ziga xos ohang\ntalafuzining xususiyatlarini tashkil etdi. Shu bois ham ularning vokal ijrosidagi\nmusiqiy pardalar sifati turlicha bo\u2018lib, ayrimlarini zamonaviy nota yozuvi orqali\nmuhrlash mushkuldir. Xabash xalqining vokal ijrochiligi va o\u2018ziga xos sadolanish\nhaqida gapirganimizda yana bir muhim jihatni alohida aytib o\u2018tish zarur. Bu ovoz\nkuchidir. Yevropa vokal ijrochiligi nuqtai nazaridan bunday kuchli ovoz g\u2018ayri tabiiy\nko\u2018rinadi. Lekin, ko\u2018plab tadqiqotchilar bu masala xususida so\u2018z yuritganida xabashlarning\nqadimiy an\u2019analaridan biri bo\u2018lgan ikki qishloq orasidagi qo\u2018shiqchilarning aytishuvlarni\nmisol tarzida keltirishadi. XIX asr oxiri XX asr boshlarida jaz musiqasida namoyon\nbo\u2018lgan blyuz, spirichuels va gospel kabi janrlariga xabash xalqining an\u2019anaviy\naytim ijro yo\u2018llari katta ta\u2019sir ko\u2018rsatgan. Qayd etilgan janrlarda ifodaviy ijro\nvositalarning an\u2019anaviy yevropa vokal texnikasiga nisbatan kengayganligi kuzatiladi.\nXususan, xabash aytim ijrochiligiga xos glissando, falset (sun\u2019iy ovoz chiqarish\nuslubi), ovozni to\u2018lqinlantirish, burunga kuylash, pichirlash, tomoqqa kuch berib\n(kuchanib) ijro etish hamda turli cholg\u2018ular sadolanishiga taqlid kabi xususiy ijro\ntexnikalari bilan boyitildi. <\/span>J<\/span>az musiqasining shakllanishi va rivojiga bu turdagi\nmusiqaning aytim janrlari katta ta\u2019sir ko\u2018rsatgan. Bu holat jaz musiqasi shakllanishining\nilk davrlarida faoliyat yuritgan jaz sozandalari ijrosidagi asarlarda xabash aytim\nyo\u2018llariga, vokal ijrochilari esa o\u2018z badihalarida cholg\u2018u ijro uslublariga taqlid\netganliklari kuzatiladi. <\/span>Bu kabi taqlid aytim uslubi soha atamasida sket deb\nnom olgan. Odatda, bu uslub jaz asarining o\u2018rta qismida ijro etilib, sozanda\nijrosiga xonanda taqlid qiladi. Unda xonanda ma\u2019lum ma\u2019noga ega bo\u2018lmagan\njumla, so\u2018z yoki bir bo\u2018g\u2018in asosida o\u2018z musiqiy badihasini \"quradi\".\nMazkur uslubni jaz vokal ijrochiligida ilk bor Luis Armstrong 1926 yilda,<\/span> <\/span>qo\u2018llagan.\nShunday qilib, AQSh musiqa madaniyatining o\u2018ziga xos ommabop cholg\u2018u va aytim\njanrlari shakllandi, kuchli ommaviy axborot kommunikatsiya tarmoqlari faoliyati\nbilan o\u2018zga makonlarga yoyildi. Jahon musiqa olamida keng yoyilgan atamalar\nrok, bit, pop<\/span> <\/span>va<\/span> <\/span>shlyagir\nkabi<\/span> <\/span>\u201c<\/span>engil<\/span>\u201d<\/span>\nmusiqa<\/span>lar<\/span>dan\nfarqli o\u2018laroq <\/span>o\u2018zbek<\/span> <\/span>musiqiy madaniyatimizda asosan \u201cEstrada\u201d atamasi<\/span> \u201cengil\u201d\nmusiqa ma\u2019nosida<\/span> qo\u2018llanilib kelmoqda. X<\/span>alqaro\nJaz festivali Eylatda o\u2018tkaziladigan musiqiy festivallarning yetakchisi hisoblanadi.\nEylatda ushbu festival har yilning avgust oyida o\u2018tkaziladi. Festival dasturida\nqatnashadigan ishtirokchilar orqali festival dunyo bo\u2018yicha mashhurlikka erishgan.\nFestival dasturiga turli musiqiy uslub, janirlar va boshqalar kiritilgan. Ushbu\nfestival Qizil dengizda o\u2018tkaziladigan mumtoz musiqiy festival deb ham nom olgan.  <\/span><\/span>\n","uzc":"\n\u041c\u0430<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u043b\u043b\u0438\u0439 \u0430\u043d\u044a\u0430\u043d\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\n\u0448\u0430\u043a\u043b\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0438\u0448\u0438 \u0432\u0430 \u043a\u0435\u0439\u0438\u043d\u0433\u0438 \u0410<\/span>\u049a<\/span>\u0428 \u043c\u0443\u0441\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0441\u0438 \u0440\u0438\u0432\u043e\u0436\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0445\u0430\u0431\u0430\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u043c\u0443\u0441\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430 \u0441\u0430\u043d\u044a\u0430\u0442\u0438 \u043c\u0443<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0438\u043c<\/span> \u0430<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u043c\u0438\u044f\u0442 \u043a\u0430\u0441\u0431 \u044d\u0442\u0433\u0430\u043d\u0438\n\u043c\u0430\u044a\u043b\u0443\u043c.<\/span> XVII\n\u0430\u0441\u0440\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0431\u043e\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0431 \u0410\u0444\u0440\u0438\u043a\u0430\u0434\u0430\u043d \u043c\u0430\u0436\u0431\u0443\u0440\u0438\u0439 \u043a\u045e\u0447\u0438\u0440\u0438\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d \u044d\u0440\u043a\u0441\u0438\u0437 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0443\u043b\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u045e\u0437\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438 \u0431\u0438\u043b\u0430\u043d <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0434\u0438\u043c\u0438\u0439\n\u0430\u043d\u044a\u0430\u043d\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0433\u0430 \u0431\u043e\u0439 \u043c\u0430\u0434\u0430\u043d\u0438\u044f\u0442\u043d\u0438 \u201c\u042f\u043d\u0433\u0438 \u041e\u043b\u0430\u043c\u201d \u0433\u0430 \u043e\u043b\u0438\u0431 \u043a\u0435\u043b\u0434\u0438\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u0432\u0430 \u0431\u0443 \u043c\u0430\u0434\u0430\u043d\u0438\u044f\u0442\n\u0415\u0432\u0440\u043e\u043f\u0430\u043b\u0438\u043a \u043a\u045e\u0447\u043c\u0430\u043d\u0447\u0438\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u043c\u0430\u0434\u0430\u043d\u0438\u044f\u0442\u0438 \u0442\u0430\u044a\u0441\u0438\u0440\u0438\u0433\u0430 \u0442\u0443\u0448\u0434\u0438. \u0410\u0441\u043e\u0441\u0430\u043d \u0410\u043c\u0435\u0440\u0438\u043a\u0430\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0436\u0430\u043d\u0443\u0431\u0438\u0439 <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0443\u0434\u0443\u0434\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0434\u0430 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0448\u043b\u043e<\/span>\u049b<\/span> \u0445\u045e\u0436\u0430\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0438 \u0438\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0438\n\u0430\u043c\u0430\u043b\u0433\u0430 \u043e\u0448\u0438\u0440\u0433\u0430\u043d <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0443\u043b\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u0431\u0430\u0434\u0438<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u0433\u045e\u0439 \u0448\u0430\u043a\u043b\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438 \u0445\u043e\u043b\u043b\u0435\u0440\u0441 \u0432\u0430\u0448\u0430\u0443\u0442\u0441 \u043a\u0430\u0431\u0438 \u0430\u0439\u0442<\/span>\u0438\u043c\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\n\u0438\u0436\u0440\u043e \u044d\u0442\u0433\u0430\u043d\u043b\u0430\u0440. \u041a\u0435\u0447\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438 \u044d\u0441\u0430 \u0438\u0431\u043e\u0434\u0430\u0442\u0433\u0430 \u0442\u045e\u043f\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0445\u0430\u0431\u0430\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0440 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0434\u0438\u043c\u0438\u0439 \u043c\u0430\u0440\u043e\u0441\u0438\u043c \u0430\u0439\u0442\u0438\u043c\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0438, \u0441\u0430\u043d\u043e\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438 (\u043f\u0441\u0430\u043b\u043c\u043b\u0430\u0440),\n\u0448\u0443\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\u0434\u0435\u043a, \u0441\u043f\u0438\u0440\u0438\u0447\u0443\u044d\u043b\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438 \u043a\u0443\u0439\u043b\u0430\u0433\u0430\u043d\u043b\u0430\u0440. <\/span>\u0411\u0443\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0434\u0430\u043d\n\u0441\u045e\u043d\u0433\u0433\u0438\u0441\u0438 \u0438\u043b\u043a \u0430\u0444\u0440\u043e-\u0430\u043c\u0435\u0440\u0438\u043a\u0430 \u043c\u0443\u0441\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0439 \u0438\u0444\u043e\u0434\u0430\u0432\u0438\u0439 \u0448\u0430\u043a\u043b\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0434\u0430\u043d\n\u0431\u0438\u0440\u0438\u0433\u0430 \u0430\u0439\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0434\u0438. XIX \u0430\u0441\u0440 \u043e\u0445\u0438\u0440\u0438 XX \u0430\u0441\u0440 \u0431<\/span>\u043e\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0434\u0430\n\u0415\u0432\u0440\u043e\u043f\u0430 \u0432\u0430 \u0410\u0444\u0440\u0438\u043a\u0430 \u043c\u0443\u0441\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0439 \u043c\u0430\u0434\u0430\u043d\u0438\u044f\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u0440\u0438\u0448\u0443\u0432\u0438 \u043d\u0430\u0442\u0438\u0436\u0430\u0441\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0410<\/span>\u049a<\/span>\u0428\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0436\u0430\u043d\u0443\u0431\u0438\u0439 \u0448\u0442\u0430\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u043f\u0440\u043e\u0444\u0435\u0441\u0441\u0438\u043e\u043d\u0430\u043b \u043c\u0443\u0441\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430 \u0441\u0430\u043d\u044a\u0430\u0442\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u044f\u043d\u0433\u0438 \u0442\u0443\u0440\u0438 <\/span>\u0434\u0436\u0430\u0437\n\u044e\u0437\u0430\u0433\u0430 \u043a\u0435\u043b\u0434\u0438. \u0414\u0436\u0430\u0437 \u2013 \u0438\u043d\u0433\u043b\u0438\u0437\u0447\u0430 \u043a\u045e\u043d\u0433\u0438\u043b \u043e\u0447\u0430\u0440 \u043c\u0443\u0437\u0438\u043a\u0430 \u0442\u0443\u0440\u0438, \u0444\u0440\u0430\u043d\u0446\u0443\u0437\u0447\u0430\u0434\u0430 \u2013 \u0432\u0430\u043b\u0434\u0438\u0440\u0430\u0448\n\u043c\u0430\u044a\u043d\u043e\u0441\u0438\u043d\u0438 \u0431\u0435\u0440\u0430\u0434\u0438. \u0411\u043e\u0448<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430 \u0442\u0430\u044a\u0440\u0430\u0444\u0434\u0430 \u044d\u0441<\/span>\u0430\n1915 \u0439\u0438\u043b\u0438 \u041d\u044c\u044e \u2013 \u0419\u043e\u0440\u043a \u0438\u043b\u043a \u0434\u0436\u0430\u0437 \u0430\u043d\u0441\u0430\u0431\u043b\u0438\u043d\u0438 \u0442\u0443\u0437\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0414\u0436\u0430\u0437\u0431\u043e \u0411\u0440\u0430\u0443\u043d \u0438\u0441\u043c\u0438\u0434\u0430\u043d \u043e\u043b\u0438\u043d\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0434\u0435\u0431\n\u0442\u0430\u044a\u043a\u0438\u0434\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0430\u0434\u0438. \u0423\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u044f\u0440\u0430\u0442\u0443\u0432\u0447\u0438\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438 \u0432\u0430 \u0442\u0430\u0448\u0443\u0432\u0447\u0438\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438 \u044d\u0441\u0430 \u0430\u043c\u0435\u0440\u0438\u043a\u0430\u043b\u0438\u043a \u0445\u0430\u0431\u0430\u0448 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0443\u043b\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0430\u0432\u043b\u043e\u0434\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438 \u0431\u045e\u043b\u0434\u0438. - \u0430\u0441\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0430\u043d\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span> \u0442\u0443\u0437\u0438\u043b\u0438\u0448\u0438 \u0434\u043e\u0438\u0440\u0430\u0441\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0440\u0438\u0442\u043c\u0438\u043a \u043e<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u043d\u0433 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0443\u0440\u0438\u043b\u043c\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0438 \u045e\u0437\u0433\u0430\u0440\u0442\u0438\u0440\u0438\u0431\n\u0442\u0443\u0440\u0438<\/span>\u0448\n(\u0431\u0430\u0434\u0438<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043b\u0438\u0448) \u0432\u0430 \u0431\u043e\u0448<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440.<\/span> \u0428\u0443 \u045e\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0430 \u0445\u0430\u0431\u0430\u0448 \u0445\u0430\u043b<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0432\u043e\u043a\u0430\u043b \u0438\u0436\u0440\u043e\u0447\u0438\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0438\u0433\u0430 \u043c\u0443\u0445\u0442\u0430\u0441\u0430\u0440 \u0442\u045e\u0445\u0442\u0430\u043b\u0438\u0431 \u045e\u0442\u0438\u0448\u043d\u0438\n\u045e\u0440\u0438\u043d\u043b\u0438 \u0434\u0435\u0431 \u0431\u0438\u043b\u0434\u0438\u043a.<\/span> \u0410\u0439\u0442\u0438\u0448 \u043a\u0435\u0440\u0430\u043a\u043a\u0438, \u0415\u0432\u0440\u043e\u043f\u0430 \u0432\u043e\u043a\u0430\u043b \u0438\u0436\u0440\u043e\u0447\u0438\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0438\u0433\u0430 \u043d\u0438\u0441\u0431\u0430\u0442\u0430\u043d\n\u0410\u0444\u0440\u0438\u043a\u0430 \u0438\u0436\u0440\u043e\u0447\u0438\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0438 \u043a\u045e\u043f\u0440\u043e<\/span>\u049b<\/span> \u0441\u045e\u0437 (\u0442\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0444\u0443\u0437 \u043e<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u043d\u0433\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438) \u0431\u0438\u043b\u0430\u043d \u0431\u043e<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u043b\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0434\u0438\u0440. \u0427\u0443\u043d\u043a\u0438 \u0445\u0430\u0431\u0430\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\n\u043c\u0443<\/span>\u0441\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0439 \u0432\u0430 \u0441\u045e\u0437 \u0442\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0444\u0443\u0437 \u043e<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u043d\u0433\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438 \u043e\u0440\u0430\u0441\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0434\u0435\u044f\u0440\u043b\u0438 \u0430\u043d\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span> \u0447\u0435\u0433\u0430\u0440\u0430\u043d\u0438 <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0438\u0441 \u044d\u0442\u0438\u0448 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0439\u0438\u043d. \u041c\u0443<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043c \u043f\u0430\u0440\u0434\u0430\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0441\u0438\u0440<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u0430\u043d\u0438\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0440 (\u0434\u0435\u0442\u043e\u043d\u0430\u0446\u0438\u044f) \u0432\u0430 \u043c\u0443\u0441\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0439 \u043a\u0443\u0439\u043b\u0430\u0448\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0442\u0430\u0431\u0438\u0438\u0439 \u0441\u045e\u0437\u043b\u0430\u0448\u0443\u0432 \u043e<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u043d\u0433\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438 (\u0438\u043d\u0442\u043e\u043d\u0430\u0446\u0438\u044f)\u0433\u0430 \u0440\u0430\u0432\u043e\u043d \u045e\u0442\u0438\u0448 \u043a\u0430\u0431\u0438 \u0443\u043d\u0441\u0443\u0440\u043b\u0430\u0440\n\u0445\u0430\u0431\u0430\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u045e\u0437\u0438\u0433\u0430 \u0445\u043e\u0441 \u043e<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u043d\u0433 \u0442\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0444\u0443\u0437\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\n\u0445\u0443\u0441\u0443\u0441\u0438\u044f\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u043d<\/span>\u0438\n\u0442\u0430\u0448\u043a\u0438\u043b \u044d\u0442\u0434\u0438. \u0428\u0443 \u0431\u043e\u0438\u0441 <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u043c \u0443\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0432\u043e\u043a\u0430\u043b\n\u0438\u0436\u0440\u043e\u0441\u0438\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438 \u043c\u0443\u0441\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>

Sayt “OPEN WEB” tomonidan tayyorlangan