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Ulug‘ o‘zbek mutafakkir olimi Abu Rayhon Beruniy tavallud topgan kun
973-09-04

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Beruniy\nAbu Rayhon Muhammad ibn Ahmad (973,4.9, qadimgi Kot (Kat) shahri,1048.11.12. \u00ad\u00ad\u00ad\u00ad\u00ad\u00adG\u2018azna\n(hozirgi Afg\u2018onistonda)-ulug\u2018 o\u2018zbek mutafakkir olimi, o\u2018rta asrning buyuk\ndaholaridan. O\u2018z zamonasining hamma fanlarini, birinchi navbatda falakiyot\n(astronomiya), fizika, riyoziyot, (matematika), ilohiyot, ma'danshunoslik\nfanlarini puxta egallagan. Bu fanlar taraqqiyotiga qo\u2018shgan hissasi bilan uning\nnomi dunyo fanining buyuk siymolari qatoridan joy oldi. Uning nasl-nasabida\n\u201cberun\u201d so\u2018zi \u201ctashqi Shahar\u201d, \u00abBeruniy\u00bb esa \u201ctashqi shaharda yashovchi kishi\u201d\nma'nosini bildiradi. Beruniyning ilm-fanga qiziqishi yoshligidanoq kuchli\nbo\u2018lgan. Mashhur olim Abu Nasr ibn Iroq Mansur qo\u2018lida ta'lim oladi. Ibn Iroq\nfalakiyot va riyoziyotga oid bir qancha asarlar yozib, shulardan 12 tasini\nBeruniyga bag\u2018ishlaydi. Beruniy ham ustozining ismini hamma vaqt zo\u2018r hurmat\nbilan tilga oladi. Beruniy fanning deyarli hamma sohalari bilan shug\u2018ullandi.\nSharqning boy fan va madaniyatini puxta o\u2018rganib, yunon ilmi bilan ham chuqur\ntanishib, yirik olim bo\u2018lib yetishdi. Beruniy shoir, adabiyotshunos ham edi.\nOna tilidan tashqari arab, sug\u2018diy, fors, suryoniy, yunon va qadimgi yahudiy\ntillarini egalladi. Keyinchalik, Hindistonda sanskrit tilini o\u2018rgandi. O\u2018z\nilmiy asarlaridan birida yozishicha, Beruniy Xorazmda yashagan davrida 990\nyildan Kot shahrida muhim astronomik kuzatishlar o\u2018tkazgan. Bu kuzatishlar\nuchun o\u2018zi astronomik asboblar ixtiro etgan. Mamlakatda taxt uchun boshlangan\nkurashlar olimning bu ilmiy ishlarini davom ettirishga imkon bermadi. Olim 998\nyildan keyin Jurjonga keladi va bu yerda ikkinchi ustozi tabib, falakiyotshunos\nva faylasuf Ali Sahl Iso al-Masixiy bilan tanishib, undan ta'lim oladi. Beruniy\n\u00abAl-osor al boqiya an al-qurun al-holiya\u00bb (\u00abQadimgi xalqlardan qolgan\nyodgorliklar\u00bb) asarini Jurjonda muhojirlik davrida yoza boshlagan va 1000-yilda\ntamomlagan. Beruniy uni yozishga juda katta tayyorgarlik ko\u2018rdi. Qunt va\nmatonat bilan turli xalqlar tarixi, madaniyati va tillarini o\u2018rgandi. Ilm-fanga\noid asarlar juda kam nusxada va qo\u2018lyozma shaklida ayrim shaxslar qo\u2018lida\nsaqlangan bir davrda yosh olim fanning turli sohalarini bu qadar egallab\nolishi, uning nihoyatda iste'dodli ekanini ko\u2018rsatadi.  <\/span>Beruniy 1005-yillarda Xorazmga qaytadi va\nso\u2018ngroq uni yangi hukmdor Ali Abbos Ma'mun II saroyga yaqinlashtiradi. O\u2018sha\ndavrda Urganchda Xorazmshoh saroyida ko\u2018p mashhur olimlar to\u2018planib, fanning\nturli sohalarida ilmiy ishlar olib boradilar. \u201cMa'mun akademiyasi\u201d deb\nnomlanadigan bu anjumanning faoliyatida Beruniy muhim rol o\u2018ynaydi. Ularning\nsavol-javoblaridan va Beruniyning Ibn Sinoga yozgan e'tirozlaridan bizgacha\nfaqat 18 tasi yetib kelgan. Bu yozishmalar uning tabiat falsafasi va fizika\nmasalalari bilan ham qiziqqanini ko\u2018rsatadi. Bu savol-javoblarda ikki mashhur\nolim fazo, issiqlikning tarqalishi, jismlarning issiqdan kengayishi, nurning\naks etishi va sinishi kabi masalalarda ilmiy munozara olib borgan. Xorazm Mahmud\nG\u2018aznaviy tomonidan (1017) bosib olingach, Beruniy Xorazmshoh saroyidagi boshqa\nbir qancha olimlar bilan birgalikda G\u2018azna shahriga olib ketildi. Beruniyning\nG\u2018aznadagi davri uning ilmiy faoliyati uchun eng mahsuldor davr bo\u2018ldi.\nG\u2018urbatda hayot kechirgan olim o\u2018zining barcha vaqtini ilmiy tadqiqot ishlariga\nsarf etdi. Beruniyniig \u00abXorazmning mashhur kishilari\u00bb asari ham shu davrda\nyaratilgan. Uning geodeziyaga oid muhim asari \u00abTaxdid nihoyot il-amokin li\ntas-hih masofot il-masokin\u00bb (\u201cTurar joylar (orasidagi) masofalarni aniqlash\nuchun manzillarning chegaralarini belgilash\u201d) 1025 yil 18 noyabrda yozib\ntugatilgan. Bu asarning birdan-bir qo\u2018lyozmasi Istanbulda, birinchi marta rus\ntiliga shu qo\u2018lyozmadan \u201cGeodeziya\u201d nomi bilan tarjima qilindi (Toshkent, 1966).\n\u00abGeodeziya\u00bb Beruniyning dunyoqarashini belgilashda boy manbalardan biri bo\u2018lib\nhisoblanadi. \u00abMunajjimlik san'atidan boshlang\u2018ich tushunchalar\u00bb asari ham 1029\nyil G\u2018aznada yozilgan. Asarning forscha va arabcha nusxalari bizgacha yetib\nkelgan.Unda o\u2018sha zamon astronomiyasi bilan bog\u2018liq bo\u2018lgan bir qancha fanlar\nhaqida muhim ma'lumotlar berilgan. Beruniyning mashhur \u00abHindiston\u00bb asari-\n\u00abTahqiq mo li-l-Hind min ma'qula maqbula fi-l-aql av marzula\u00bb (\u00abHindlarning\naqlga sig\u2018adigan va sig\u2018maydigan ta'limotlarini aniqlash kitobi\u00bb) 1030 yilda\nyozilgan. Bu asar G\u2018arb va Sharq olimlari tomonidan yuksak baholangan, Mahmud\nG\u2018aznaviyning Hindistonga qilgan yurishlarida Beruniy shohga hamroh bo\u2018lgan.\nGarchi olimning Hindistonda qachon va qanday yashagani aniq bo\u2018lmasada, Xorazmdan\nolib ketilgandan keyin bir oz vaqt Hindistonning shimolidagi Nandna qal'asida\nyashagani ma'lum, Hindistonda sanskrit tilini puxta o\u2018rganish uning hind\nmadaniyati, adabiyoti va Hindistonning o\u2018sha davr olimlari bilan yaqindan\ntanishishiga hamda bu mamlakat haqida o\u2018lmas asar yaratishga imkon berdi.\n\u00abHindiston\u00bb hajmi jihatidan juda katta asar. Unda hind adabiyoti, falsafasi,\naniq fanlar, geografiya, elshunoslik, qonun va urf-odatlar, falsafa, din,\ntarixiy-diniy rivoyatlar, hind yozuvining turlari haqida ma'lumotlar bor.\nHozirgi zamon Hindiston olimlari Beruniyning bu asarini hind madaniyati\ntarixini yoritish nuqtai nazaridan juda yuqori baholaydilar va muhim\nmanbalardan biri deb hisoblaydilar. Ularning ta'kidlashicha, Beruniy  <\/span>o\u2018z asarida bizgacha yetib kelmagan\nsanskritda yozilgan ko\u2018pgina manbalardan foydalangan. Beruniy astronomiyaga oid\n\u201cAl-Qonun al-Mas'udiy\u201d (\u00abMas'ud qonuni\u00bb) asarini sulton Ma'sudga bag\u2018ishladi.\nKitobning qachon yozib tugatilgani aniq emas. Bu asar Beruniyning falakiyotga\ndoir eng muhim asaridir. O\u2018rta asr olimlari bu asarni juda yuksak baholaganlar.\nShundan keyin u yana ikkita muhim kitobini yozgan. Bulardan biri\n\u00abMineralogiya\u00bb, ya'ni \u00abKitob al-jamohir fi ma'rifat al-javohir\u00bb (\u00abQimmatbaho\ntoshlarni bilib olish bo\u2018yicha ma'lumotlar to\u2018plami\u00bb) dir. Bu risola o\u2018z\nzamonasi uchun Markaziy Osiyo va YAqin Sharq, Yevropada mineralogiya sohasidagi\neng yaxshi asar hisoblangan. Uning oxirgi asari - \u00abDorivor o\u2018simliklar haqida\nkitob\u00bb ning qo\u2018lyozmasi 20-asrning 30-yillarida Turkiyada topildi. Asar\n\u00abSaydana\u00bb nomi bilan mashhur, unda Sharqda, jumladan, Turkistonda o\u2018sadigan\ndorivor o\u2018simliklarning tavsifi berilgan. Beruniy Fanning hamma sohalarida\nsamarali ijod qilgan edi. Uning ilmiy merosi juda keng va rang- barang.\nBeruniyning ilmiy ish sohasidagi zo\u2018r qobiliyati uning ko\u2018pchilik zamondoshlari\nva keyingi olimlar tomonidan e'tirof etilgan. 1035-36 yillarda Beruniy o\u2018z\nilmiy ishlarining ro\u2018yxatini tuzadi. Bunda shu vaqtgacha yozgan kitob va\nrisolalari 113 taga yetgani ko\u2018rsatilgan. Keyingi yozgan asarlarini ham\nqo\u2018shsak u qoldirgan ilmiy meros 152 kitob va risoladan iborat. Uning asarlari\nmavzu jihatdan turli-tuman. Ko\u2018pchilik asarlari o\u2018z zamonasida o\u2018ziga xos bir\nensiklopediya hisoblangan. Asarlarining 70 tasi falakiyot, 20 tasi riyoziyot,\n12 tasi geografiya va geodeziya, 3 tasi ma'danshunoslik, 4 tasi xaritagrafiya,\n3 tasi iqlimshunoslik, biri fizika, biri dorishunoslik, 15 tasi tarix va\nelshunoslik, 4 tasi falsafa, 18 tasi adabiyot va boshqa fanlarga oiddir.\nBeruniy turli tillardan bir qancha ilmiy adabiy asarlarni tarjima ham\nqilgan.   <\/span>Afsuski, hozircha olimning\nfaqat 28 asarigina ma'lum. Qolganlari bizgacha yetib kelmagan yoki hali\ntopilganicha yo\u2018q. Beruniy ijodini o\u2018rganish, uning asarlarini nashr etish,\nboshqa tillarga tarjima qilish ishlari o\u2018tgan asr oxirlaridan boshlandi. Uning\n\u201cHadimgi xalqlardan qolgan yodgorliklar\u201d, \u201cHindiston\u00bb, \u201cGeodeziya\u201d,\n\u201cMineralogiya\u201d, \u00abMas'ud qonuni\u00bb, \u201cMunajjimlik san'atidan boshlang\u2018ich\ntushunchalar\u201d va boshqa asarlarining matni nashr etildi va turli tillarga tarjima\nqilindi Tanlangan asarlari rus va o\u2018zbek tillarida chop etildi. Beruniyning\nfalakiyot sohasidagi xizmati ayniqsa kattadir. U o\u2018z ilmiy asarlarida dunyoning\ntuzilishi masalasida Ptolemey nazariyasiga suyansa ham,lekin Yerning harakati\nhaqida o\u2018sha davrda hukmron nazariyaga zid keladigan fikrlarni bayon etgan.\n\u201cHindiston\u201d asarida \u201cYerning aylanish harakati falakiyot fani hisoblariga hech\nqanday zid kelmaydi, balki Yerda yuz beradigan hodisalar, uning harakati bilan\nbirga bir tekis davom etaveradi\u201d, degan fikrni bayon etadi. \u00abIstagan xil\nastrologiyani tayyorlashning turli usullari haqida\u00bb risolasida Abu Sa'id\nas-Sijziyning astrologyasi haqida gapirganda juda muhim xulosaga keladi: \u00abUning\nnegizi osmon harakatlanishiga emas, balki Yerning harakatlanishiga asoslanganligi\nuchun men uni juda ham ajoyib kashfiyot deb hisoblayman\u00bb. Beruniy yoritqichlar\nharakatini handasaviy izohlash asosida olamning tuzilishini tushuntiradigan\ngeotsentrik va geliotsentrik sistema teng kuchga ega, degan xulosaga keladi.\n\u201cGeodeziya\u201d asarida geotsentrizm bilan bog\u2018liq bo\u2018lgan ba'zi\nnazariyalarning  <\/span>to\u2018g\u2018riligiga shubha\nbilan qaraganini ochiqdan-ochiq bayon etadi. Bu bilan olim dunyoning\ngeliotsentrik tuzilishi haqidagi nazariyani ishlashga hissa qo\u2018shdi. U osmon\nyoritkichlarining harakat trayektoriyasi va shakli ellipsoid ekanligi haqida\nbirinchi bo\u2018lib fikr yuritgan olimlardan. Beruniyning bu bashorati ancha\nkeyingi Kepler kashfiyotlarini ma'lum darajada oldindan aytish edi. U amaliy\nastronomiya masalalari bilan ham juda ko\u2018p shug\u2018ullanar edi. O\u2018zining aniq va\npuxta astronomik kuzatishlariga asoslanib, Beruniy osmon ekvatoriga quyosh\nekliptikasi og\u2018ishining kattaligi va ekliptika og\u2018ishi uzunligining asriy\no\u2018zgarishlarini belgilashda, quyosh apogeyasi (avji) uzoqligini aniqlashda qadimgi\nva o\u2018ziga zamondosh bo\u2018lgan astronomlarga qaraganda ancha aniq natijalarga\nerishgan. Beruniy 1029 ta yulduzning koordinatalari va yulduz kattaliklari qayd\netilgan yulduzlar jadvalini tuzgan. Beruniy o\u2018z zamonasining ulkan\nmatematiklaridan biri edi. Uning matematika faniga qo\u2018shgan hissasi muhim\nahamiyatga ega. Beruniy asarlarida geometriya, arifmetika, algebra, sonlar\nnazariyasi va trigonometriya tushunchalari ma'lum tartib bilan ta'riflandi.\nArifmetika sohasida u mashhur uchlamchi qoidani ko\u2018rib chiqadi, besh, yetti va\nundan ortiq miqdorlarning hollari uchun uchlamchi qoidani umumlashtiruvchi\nqoidalarni bayon qiladi. Beruniy ayniqsa trigonometriya sohasida katta\nyutuqlarga erishdi. Ba'zi bir hozirgi zamon tadqiqotchilari Beruniyni\ntrigonometriyaga mustaqil fan sifatida qaragan birinchi olim deb e'tirof\netmoqdalar. Beruniy trigonometrik funksiyalarning umumiy qonuniyatini topish\nyuzasidan ish olib borgan. \u201cAl-Qonun al-Mas'udiy\u201d asarida yassi va sferik\ntrigonometriyani bayon qilgan. U trigonometrik funksiyaning chiziqli va kvadrat\ninterpolitiv qoidasini ishlab berdi, o\u2018rtacha aniq hisoblar metodini taklif\nqilib, tegishli jadvallarni keltirdi, bir qancha o\u2018nli raqamlar uchun P\nmiqdorini aniq hisoblab chiqadi. Geografiya, geodeziya va geologiya fanlari sohasida\nham Beruniyning qo\u2018shgan hissasi beqiyos. Tarixda Amerika qit'asini 1492 yil\noktyabr oyida dengiz sayyohi Xristofor Kolumb kashf etganligi qayd qilingan.\nAmmo bu borada Beruniyning ilmiy farazi mavjudligi ham ma'lum, Olim o\u2018zining\n\u201cHindiston\u201d asarida yer yuzasining tuzilishi dengiz va quruqlik to\u2018g\u2018risida\ngapirib, \u00ab\u2026 Yerning choragi ma'muradir. Ma'murani g\u2018arb va sharq tomondan Muhit\nokeani (Atlantika vaTinch okean) o\u2018rab turibdi. Bu Muhit okeani, yerning obod\nqismini dengizlarning narigi tomonida bo\u2018lishi mumkin bo\u2018lgan quruqlik yoki\nodam yashaydigan orollardan ikkala yoqdan (g\u2018arbdan va sharqdan) ajratib\nturadi...\u00bb deb yozgan, Shunday fikrni \u201cAl-Qonun al-Mas'udiy\u201d asarida ham\nuqtiradi. Demak, g\u2018arbiy yarim sharda yaxlit bir quruqlikning, keyinchalik Amerika\ndeb nomlangan qit'aning mavjudligini Beruniy yevropalik olimlardan 450 yilgacha\noldin taxmin qilib, o\u2018z asarlarida bir necha bor yozgan. Beruniyning g\u2018arbiy\nyarim sharda katta quruqlik borligi to\u2018grisidagi fikri 15-16-asrlarda o\u2018z\ntasdig\u2018ini topdi. Beruniy matematik geografiya taraqqiyotiga ham katta hissa\nqo\u2018shdi. U joylarning geografik uzoqligini va kengligini aniqlash usullarini\nishlab chiqishda yangiliklar ochdi: trigonometriya va geometriyani keng\nqo\u2018llash orqali o\u2018zidan oldingi astronomlarga nisbatan ancha aniq natijalarga\nerishdi. Masalan, u geografik kenglikni aniqlashda 16-asrda Tixo de Brage\ntomonidan kashf etilgan deb hisoblangan \n<\/span>usulni ishlatgan. Geologiya sohasida ham Beruniy ajoyib kashfiyotlar\nqilgan. Yerni o\u2018rganish masalasiga ilmiy yondashdi. Yer yuzasining har bir\nqismi o\u2018zining uzoq tarixiy taraqqiyotiga ega ekanligini yozadi. Turkistonning\nba'zi joylari,shu jumladan Amudaryo vodiysining geologik rivojlanishini\nbirinchi marta jiddiy o\u2018rganishga harakat qilgan ham Beruniy  <\/span>bo\u2018lgan. Uning Amudaryo vodiysining geologik\no\u2018tmishi va Orol dengizining paydo bo\u2018lishi haqidagi xulosalari o\u2018sha zamonning\neng muvaffaqiyatli geologik tahlillaridan biri hisoblanadi. Beruniy\ndorishunoslik, meteorologiya, fizika kabi fanlarga ham hissa qo\u2018shgan. Masalan,\nbuloq va quduq suvlarining yuqoriga ko\u2018tarilishi va fontan bo\u2018lib otilib\nchiquvchi buloqlar gidrostatikasini tushuntirishda Beruniy o\u2018z zamoiasidan\nancha ilgari ketib, bu boradagi uydirmalarni inkor etadi. Olim biologiya\nsoqasida tabiiy tanlanish haqida qimmatli fikrlar aytgan. U tabiiy tanlanish\nbo\u2018yicha avval insonning ongli faoliyatini tasvirlab beradi, keyin \u00abTabiat ham\nshunday qiladi, lekin u farqiga bormaydi, chunki uning harakati ongsizdir\u00bb,\ndegan xulosaga keladi. Buyuk olim fan sohasida tajribalar o\u2018tkazish uchun turli\nasbob va uskunalar ixtiro etishda ham katta mahorat ko\u2018rsatdi. Ko\u2018pchilik\ntajriba asboblarini o\u2018zi yaratgan edi. Masalan, astronomiya sohasida\nmeridianlar yo\u2018nalishini aniqlash uchun \u00abHind doirasi\u00bbni ixtiro etgan. Bir\nqancha astronomiya konstruksiyalarini, diametri 7,5 m bo\u2018lgan va o\u2018sha zamonda\neng yirik hisoblangan \u201cdevoriy kvadrant\u201dni yasagan. Solishtirma og\u2018irlikni\naniqlash uchun ham maxsus asbob ixtiro etgan. Beruniy Markaziy Osiyo va umuman\nYaqin Sharqda birinchi ilmiy globuslardan birini bunyod etgan edi. Bu globusda\naholi yashaydigan joylar aniq ko\u2018rsatilgan va buning yordamida ularning\ngeografik koordinatalarini aniqlash mumkin bo\u2018lgan. Tabiiy fanlar tarixida\nBeruniyning abadiy qoladigan xizmati shundaki, u o\u2018zining ilmiy tadqiqot\nishlarida o\u2018zi ishlab chiqqan ilmiy tadqiqot metodiga, tajriba va\nkuzatishlariga suyandi. Kuzatish va tajriba metodini misli ko\u2018rilmagan darajada\nyuqori ko\u2018tardi, bu uning tajribaviy bilimlar sohasidagi zo\u2018r yutug\u2018idir. Olim\no\u2018z oldiga fanni aniq ma'lumotlar bilan boyitish, nazariyalarini ishlab\nchiqish, yangi usul va qonunlarini ochish vazifalarini qo\u2018ygan. Beruniy\nijtimoiy nazariyalar sohasida ham samarali ijod etdi, bu sohalar rivojiga hissa\nqo\u2018shdi. Uning ko\u2018pgina asarlari o\u2018z mohiyati bilan tabiiy fanlarning sohalari\nbo\u2018yicha ham, shuningdek o\u2018sha zamonlarda yashab o\u2018tgan xalqlarning ijtimoiy,\nxo\u2018jalik va siyosiy hayoti sohasida ham butun bir ensiklopediya bo\u2018lib xizmat\nqilgan. Beruniy o\u2018zining \u201cKitob fi axborot il-mubayyizot val-qaromita asarini\nO\u2018rta Osiyoda o\u2018sha davrda eng ilg\u2018or ijtimoiy harakatlardan biri bo\u2018lgan\nharmatiylarga bag\u2018ishlagan, Keyinroq \u201cYodgorliklar\u201d, \u201dHindiston\u201d kitoblarini\nyozgan.    <\/span>Uning \u201cKitob ul-maqolot\nval-arz vad-diyonot\u201d (\u00abMaqolalar, e'tiqodlar dinlar haqida kitob\u00bb), \u00abKtob fi\naxbori Xorazm\u00bb (\u00abXorazm xabarlari haqida kitob\u00bb), \u00abKitob tarixi ayyom as-Sulton\nMahmud va axbori abihi\u00bb (\u00abSulton Mahmud davri tarixining kitobi va otasi\nhaqidagi xabarlar\u00bb) kabi asarlari bizgacha yetib kelmagan. \u201cYodgorliklar\u201d\n(\u201cAl-osor al-boqiya\u201d) podshohlar va mashhur shaxslarning tarixini yorituvchi va\no\u2018sha davrning madaniyatini aks ettiruvchi tarixiy etnografik asardir. Asarning\nqimmati shundaki, u islomgacha bo\u2018lgan (Xorazmda) butun bir davrni ochish\nimkoniyatini tug\u2018dirdi. Bu kitobda yunonlar, rimlik, eroniy, sug\u2018diy,\nxorazmlik, harroniy (yulduzga sig\u2018inuvchilar), qibtiy, xristian,yahudiylar,\nislomgacha bo\u2018lgan arablarning yil hisoblari, turli bayram va mashhur kunlari\nmufassal tasvirlangan, unda ko\u2018p xalqlarning ma'naviy hayoti va tarixiga oid\nqimmatli ma'lumotlar bor.   <\/span>Uning maxsus\ntabiatshunoslik masalalariga bag\u2018ishlangan kitoblari ham ijtimoiy fanlarning\nko\u2018pgina sohalarini o\u2018ziga qamrab oladi. Bu xususda uning \u00abGeodeziya\u00bb,\n\u00abMineralogiya\u00bb va boshqa asarlarida tarix, adabiyot, tilshunoslik kabi\nsohalarga oid qimmatli ma'lumotlar jamlangan, Masalan, \u201cMineralogiya\u201d da har\nbir qimmatbaho tosh yoki metallni tavsiflash jarayonida arab mumtoz\nshoirlarining o\u2018sha tosh yoki metall haqida yozgan she'rlaridan namunalar\nkeltirilgan. Beruniy tarixni bayon qilishda diniy, irqiy farqlardan qat'i\nnazar, xolisona turish kerak, deb talab qiladi. Qiyosiy tahlil qilish metodidan\nkeng foydalangan. Masalan, u hind fani va falsafasi, hindlarning diniy\ne'tiqodlari va urf-odatlari haqidagi ma'lumotlarni yunon falsafasi va\nmifologiyasi bilan solishtiradi. Beruniy taraqqiy etish va yo\u2018q bo\u2018lishga sabab\nbo\u2018lgan tabiiy hodisalarni tadqiq etar ekan Allohning yaratuvchilik qudratini\ninkor etmaydi, Olim tabiatda qotib qolgan narsa yo\u2018q, \u00abdunyodagi hamma narsa\nma'lum vaqtdan keyin bir holatdan ikkinchi holatga o\u2018tib turadi\u00bb, degan nuqtai\nnazarda turadi. Dunyoning tuzilishini tushuntirishda Beruniy atomizmga yaqin\nbo\u2018lgan. Uning atomistikasi atomlarning moddiy xarakterini va har qanday\ndeterminizmni inkor etuvchi mutakallimlarning fikr va qarashlariga\nqarama-qarshi qo\u2018yilgan. Uning dunyolar ko\u2018p degan xulosalarga olib keluvchi\nfikrlari ham bo\u2018lgan. Buni olimning falsafiy bahslarida Ibn Sino ham sezgan\nedi. Beruniy o\u2018z mulohazalarida boshqa dunyolarning moddiyligi haqidagi tushunchaga\nasoslangan. Bilish nazariyasi xususida ham o\u2018ziga xos fikrlarsh bor. Uning\nfikricha, bilishning asosi, bizning dunyo haqidagi bilimlarimiz manbai bo\u2018lmish\nsezgi a'zolari orqali olingan bilimlardir. Umuman, ilmiy bilimlar haqida\ngapirar ekan, bu- aql -idrok tufayli erishilgan yutuqdir, deydi. Beruniy bu\nsohada tajribaning ahamiyatini alohida ta'kidlaydi. Beruniy birinchilardan\nbo\u2018lib, Aristotelning fan sohasidagi xizmatiga yuksak baho berish bilan birga\ntanqidiy fikrlar ham bildirgan. Beruniy Aristotelning \u00abtabiiy joy\u00bb, \u00abdunyoning\nyagonaligi\u00bb, \u201cog\u2018irlik va yengillik\u201d kabi tushunchalarini tanqid qiladi.\nAristotelning \u00abog\u2018ir\u00bb va \u00abyengil\u00bb degan tushunchasidan farqli ravishda Beruniy\nIbn Sinoga yozgan \u00abE'tirozlar\u00bbida hamma narsalarning yer markazi tomon\ntortilishi haqidagi fikrni olg\u2018a suradi. Bu, tortilish kuchi haqidagi\nnazariyani ishlab chiqish yo\u2018lida qo\u2018yilgan muhim qadam edi. Beruniy ijtimoiy\nhodisalarni tushuntirishda geografik muhit, kishilarning moddiy ehtiyoji kabi\nomillar ahamiyatini hisobga oldi. Uning fikricha, tilning kelib chiqishiga\nodamlarning bir-biri bilan muomala qilishdagi ehtiyojlari, turli fanlarning\npaydo bo\u2018lishiga esa ularning moddiy va ma'naviy ehtiyojlari sabab bo\u2018lgan.\nBeruniy hokimiyatni nasldan-naslga o\u2018tib turish qonun-qoidasini umuman tan olsa\nham,u yoki bu davlat arbobining hokimiyatni boshqarishga yaroqliligi uning\ndavlatga rahbarlik qilishdagi qobiliyatiga bog\u2018liq, deydi. Beruniy ilm-fanning\nbuyuk homiysi va muxlisi edi. Mamlakatning obodonchiligi ilm-fanning gullashiga\nbog\u2018liq, odamning baxti esa uning bilim va ma'rifatida, deb yozadi. U ma'rifat\ndushmanlariga, yomon urf-odatlarga, adolatsizlikka qarshi edi. Beruniyning boy\nilmiy merosi O\u2018zbekiston va undan tashqarida chuqur o\u2018rganilmoqda. Uning\nasarlari lotin, fransuz, italyan, nemis, ingliz, fors, turk tillariga tarjima\nqilinmoqda. Hayoti va ijodi yozuvchi va san'atkorlar e'tiborini tortib\nkelmoqda. Beruniy haqida \u00abO\u2018zbekfilm\u00bb studiyasi ijodkorlari 2 qismdan iborat\n\u00abAbu Rayhon Beruniy\u00bb fil'mini (1974) yaratganlar. Uyg\u2018un \u201cAbu Rayhon Beruniy\u201d\np'esasini (1973) yozgan. Qoraqalpog\u2018iston Respublikasidagi shahar,tuman Beruniy\nnomiga qo\u2018yilgan. O\u2018zbekiston FA Sharqshunoslnk instituti, Toshkent texnika\ninstituti, metro bekati uning nomi bilan ataladi. Toshkeit shahrida, Qoraqalpog\u2018iston,\nXorazmda Beruniy nomida ko\u2018cha, maydon, maktab va boshqa muassasalar bor.\nDunyoda birinchi marta O\u2018zbekistonda topilgan mineralga Beruniy nomi qo\u2018yilgan.\nBeruniy (Abu Rayhon Beruniy) nomidagi O\u2018zbekiston Respublikasi Davlat mukofoti\nta'sis etilgan. Beruniyga Toshkent, Xiva, Beruniy shaharlarida haykal\no\u2018rnatilgan.<\/span><\/p>\n\n

Ma'lumot: O\u2018zbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. \u201cO\u2018zbekiston milliy\nensiklopediyasi\u201d. T.2000.<\/span><\/p>","uzc":"\n\n\n

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Sayt “OPEN WEB” tomonidan tayyorlangan