SHAXSIY KABINETGA KIRISH
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SSENARIYLAR
 Barcha ssenariylar
ARXIV
Noyabr 2019
YaDuSeChPaJuSh
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Indoneziya Respublikasida mustaqillik kuni
1949-08-18

{"uz":"\nIndoneziya\nRespublikasi Janubi-Sharqiy Osiyodagi davlat. Dunyodagi eng katta Malay\narxipelagining 17,5 ming oroli va Yangi Gvineya orolining g\u2019arbiy qismida\njoylashgan. Janubda-Sharqiy Timor, shimoli-g\u2019arbda-Malayziya, sharqda-Papua-Yangi\nGvineya bilan chegaradosh. Quruqlikdagi chegaralari uzunligi-2830 km<\/st1:metricconverter>. Indoneziya\nhududining yarmidan ko\u2019prog\u2019i o\u2019rtacha baland va pastqam tog\u2019lardan, Yangi\nGvineyada qisman baland tog\u2019lardan, qolgan qismi allyuvial tekisliklardan\niborat. Orolda 400 dan ortiq vulqon bor, shundan 100 tasi harakatdagi\nvulqonlardir. Tektonik harakatlar tinmagan. Tez tez kuchli zilzila bo\u2019lib\nturadi. Neft, ko\u2019mir, temir, marganes, qalayi rudalari, boksit, mis,\nqo\u2019rg\u2019oshin, ruh, alyuminiy, nikel va fosfat konlari bor. Iqlimi-Indoneziyaning\nkatta qismida ekvatorial, Yava orolining sharqiy va Kichik Zond orollarida subekvatorial\n <\/span>iqlim. Eng yirik daryolari-Kapaus,\nBarito, Xarri, Kompar, Musi, Mamberamo, Digul. Indoneziya-agrar-industrial\nmamlakat. Qishloq xo\u2019jaligi Indoneziya iqtisodining yetakchi tarmog\u2019i hisoblanadi.\nMehnatga yaroqli aholining yarmidan ko\u2019prog\u2019i qishloq xo\u2019jaligida band. Tabiiy\nkauchuk va palma yog\u2019i ishlab chiqarish bo\u2019yicha dunyoda birinchi o\u2019rinda\nturadi. Tropik daraxt yog\u2019ochidan yasalgan buyumlar, tamaki, choy, qahva,\nziravor dorivorlar, shuningdek, baliq va dengiz mahsulotlarini qazib beruvchi\neng katta davlatdir. Asosiy donli ekinlari-sholi, makkajo\u2019xori. Chorvachiligida\nqoramol, cho\u2019chqa, echki, qo\u2019y, yilqi, parranda boqiladi. Indoneziya hududining\n65% o\u2019rmon bilan qoplangan bo\u2019lib, qimmatbaho yog\u2019och tayyorlanadi. Konchilik\nsanoati byudjet tushumlarining  <\/span>ancha\nqismini ta\u2019minlaydi. Yiliga o\u2019rtacha 576 mln barrel neft qazib olinadi.\nIndoneziya suyultirilgan tabiiy gazni chetga chiqarishda dunyoda birinchi\no\u2019rinda, qalayi qazib olishda ikkinchi o\u2019rinda, nikel qazib olishda to\u2019rtinchi\no\u2019rinda turadi. Mahsulot ishlab chiqarish sanoatining asosini iste\u2019mol mollari:\ngazlama, chram buyumlar, ro\u2019zg\u2019orbop kimyoviy mahsulotlar, oziq-ovqat tashkil\netadi. Indoneziya qadimiy madaniyat markazlaridan biridir. Miloddan avvalgi II\nasrga oid yodgorliklar saqlangan. Yava, Malayya orolarida Taruma va Kalinga,\nSumatrada Malayya va Shrivijayya davlatlari tashkil topgan. Ularda hinduiylik\nva buddaviylik tarqala boshladi. VII asrda bir nechta mayda davlatlar\nbirlashib, Shrivijayya imperiyasini tashkil etdi. VIII asrning birinchi yarmida\nYavada Mataram davlati paydo bo\u2019ldi. 1025 yili Shrivijayya inqirozga uchradi.\nXI asrning 40-yillarida Mataram Kediri va Jangola davlatlariga bo\u2019linib ketdi.  <\/span>XVI asrdan Majapaxit imperiyasi musulmon\nsultonliklariga bo\u2019linib ketgach, Indoneziya hududiga yevropaliklar kirib kela\nboshladi. 1602 yilda gollandlar Indoneziyada Ost-Indiya kompaniyasiga asos\nsoldi. 1811 yili Indoneziyani inglizlar bosib oldi. 1814 yilgi  <\/span>Angliya-Niderlandiya bitimiga ko\u2019ra\nIndoneziya  <\/span>Niderlandiya qo\u2019liga o\u2019tdi.\n1942-1945 yillarda Indoneziyani Yaponiya bosib oldi. 1949 yilning noyabrida\nGollandiya Indoneziya mustaqilligini tan olishga majbur bo\u2019ldi. Biroq\nIndoneziya 16 hududga bo\u2019lib tashlandi: mamlakat \u201cIndoneziya Qoshma Shtatlari\u201d\nnomi bilan yuritila boshlandi. Gollandiya \n<\/span>G\u2019arbiy Irianni o\u2019z qo\u2019l ostida saqlab qoldi. 1950 yilning 6  <\/span>avgustida Indoneziya unitar davlat deb e\u2019lon\nqilindi. 1953 yilning 1 mayida G\u2019arbiy Irian Indoneziya Respublikasi tarkibiga\nqo\u2019shib olindi. 2002 yilning 20 mayida Sharqiy Timor Indoneziya tarkibidan\najrab chiqdi.<\/span>\n","uzc":"\n\u0418\u043d\u0434\u043e\u043d\u0435\u0437\u0438\u044f\n\u0420\u0435\u0441\u043f\u0443\u0431\u043b\u0438\u043a\u0430\u0441\u0438 \u0416\u0430\u043d\u0443\u0431\u0438-<\/span>\u0428<\/span>\u0430\u0440<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0439\n\u041e\u0441\u0438\u0451\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438 \u0434\u0430\u0432\u043b\u0430\u0442. \u0414\u0443\u043d\u0451\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438 \u044d\u043d\u0433 \u043a\u0430\u0442\u0442\u0430 \u041c\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0439 \u0430\u0440\u0445\u0438\u043f\u0435\u043b\u0430\u0433\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 17,5 \u043c\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u043e\u0440\u043e\u043b\u0438 \u0432\u0430\n\u042f\u043d\u0433\u0438 \u0413\u0432\u0438\u043d\u0435\u044f \u043e\u0440\u043e\u043b\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 -<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0431\u0438\u0439 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0441\u043c\u0438\u0434\u0430\n\u0436\u043e\u0439\u043b\u0430\u0448\u0433\u0430\u043d.<\/span>\n\u0416\u0430\u043d\u0443\u0431\u0434\u0430-\u0428\u0430\u0440<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0439\n\u0422\u0438\u043c\u043e\u0440, \u0448\u0438\u043c\u043e\u043b\u0438-<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0431\u0434\u0430-\u041c\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0439\u0437\u0438\u044f,\n\u0448\u0430\u0440<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0434\u0430-\u041f\u0430\u043f\u0443\u0430-\u042f\u043d\u0433\u0438\n\u0413\u0432\u0438\u043d\u0435\u044f \u0431\u0438\u043b\u0430\u043d \u0447\u0435\u0433\u0430\u0440\u0430\u0434\u043e\u0448. <\/span>\u049a<\/span>\u0443\u0440\u0443<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043b\u0438\u043a\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438\n\u0447\u0435\u0433\u0430\u0440\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438 \u0443\u0437\u0443\u043d\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0438-2830 \u043a\u043c<\/st1:metricconverter>.\n\u0418\u043d\u0434\u043e\u043d\u0435\u0437\u0438\u044f <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0443\u0434\u0443\u0434\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\n\u044f\u0440\u043c\u0438\u0434\u0430\u043d \u043a\u045e\u043f\u0440\u043e<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u0438\n\u045e\u0440\u0442\u0430\u0447\u0430 \u0431\u0430\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0434 \u0432\u0430 \u043f\u0430\u0441\u0442<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u043c \u0442\u043e<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0434\u0430\u043d,\n <\/span>\u042f\u043d\u0433\u0438 \u0413\u0432\u0438\u043d\u0435\u044f\u0434\u0430 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0441\u043c\u0430\u043d\n\u0431\u0430\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0434 \u0442\u043e<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0434\u0430\u043d,\n<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d\n<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0441\u043c\u0438\n\u0430\u043b\u043b\u044e\u0432\u0438\u0430\u043b \u0442\u0435\u043a\u0438\u0441\u043b\u0438\u043a\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0438\u0431\u043e\u0440\u0430\u0442. \u041e\u0440\u043e\u043b\u0434\u0430 400 \u0434\u0430\u043d \u043e\u0440\u0442\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span> \u0432\u0443\u043b<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u043d\n\u0431\u043e\u0440, \u0448\u0443\u043d\u0434\u0430\u043d 100 \u0442\u0430\u0441\u0438 <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0430\u043a\u0430\u0442\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438\n\u0432\u0443\u043b<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u043d\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0434\u0438\u0440.\n\u0422\u0435\u043a\u0442\u043e\u043d\u0438\u043a <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0430\u043a\u0430\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440\n\u0442\u0438\u043d\u043c\u0430\u0433\u0430\u043d. \u0422\u0435\u0437 \u0442\u0435\u0437 \u043a\u0443\u0447\u043b\u0438 \u0437\u0438\u043b\u0437\u0438\u043b\u0430 \u0431\u045e\u043b\u0438\u0431 \u0442\u0443\u0440\u0430\u0434\u0438. \u041d\u0435\u0444\u0442, \u043a\u045e\u043c\u0438\u0440, \u0442\u0435\u043c\u0438\u0440, \u043c\u0430\u0440\u0433\u0430\u043d\u0435\u0441, <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0439\u0438\n\u0440\u0443\u0434\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438, \u0431\u043e\u043a\u0441\u0438\u0442, \u043c\u0438\u0441, <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u045e\u0440<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u043e\u0448\u0438\u043d,\n\u0440\u0443<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>,\n\u0430\u043b\u044e\u043c\u0438\u043d\u0438\u0439, \u043d\u0438\u043a\u0435\u043b \u0432\u0430 \u0444\u043e\u0441\u0444\u0430\u0442 \u043a\u043e\u043d\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438 \u0431\u043e\u0440. \u0418<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043b\u0438\u043c\u0438-\u0418\u043d\u0434\u043e\u043d\u0435\u0437\u0438\u044f\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\n\u043a\u0430\u0442\u0442\u0430 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0441\u043c\u0438\u0434\u0430\n\u044d\u043a\u0432\u0430\u0442\u043e\u0440\u0438\u0430\u043b, \u042f\u0432\u0430 \u043e\u0440\u043e\u043b\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0448\u0430\u0440<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0439 \u0432\u0430\n\u041a\u0438\u0447\u0438\u043a \u0417\u043e\u043d\u0434 \u043e\u0440\u043e\u043b\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0441\u0443\u0431\u0435\u043a\u0432\u0430\u0442\u043e\u0440\u0438\u0430\u043b \u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043b\u0438\u043c. <\/span>\u042d\u043d\u0433 \u0439\u0438\u0440\u0438\u043a \u0434\u0430\u0440\u0451\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438-\u041a\u0430\u043f\u0430\u0443\u0441,\n\u0411\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0442\u043e, \u0425\u0430\u0440\u0440\u0438, \u041a\u043e\u043c\u043f\u0430\u0440, \u041c\u0443\u0441\u0438, \u041c\u0430\u043c\u0431\u0435\u0440\u0430\u043c\u043e, \u0414\u0438\u0433\u0443\u043b. \u0418\u043d\u0434\u043e\u043d\u0435\u0437\u0438\u044f-\u0430\u0433\u0440\u0430\u0440-\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0443<\/span>\u0441\u0442<\/span>\u0440\u0438\u0430\u043b \u043c\u0430\u043c\u043b\u0430\u043a\u0430\u0442. <\/span>\u049a<\/span>\u0438\u0448\u043b\u043e<\/span>\u049b<\/span> \u0445<\/span>\u045e<\/span>\u0436\u0430\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0438 \u0418\u043d\u0434\u043e\u043d\u0435\u0437\u0438\u044f \u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0442\u0438\u0441\u043e\u0434\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\n\u0435\u0442\u0430\u043a\u0447\u0438 \u0442\u0430\u0440\u043c\u043e<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u0438<\/span> <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0438\u0441\u043e\u0431\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0430\u0434\u0438.\n\u041c\u0435<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u043d\u0430\u0442\u0433\u0430 \u044f\u0440\u043e<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043b\u0438 \u0430<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u043e\u043b\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\n\u044f\u0440\u043c\u0438\u0434\u0430\u043d \u043a<\/span>\u045e<\/span>\u043f\u0440\u043e<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u0438<\/span> <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0448\u043b\u043e<\/span>\u049b<\/span> \u0445<\/span>\u045e<\/span>\u0436\u0430\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0431\u0430\u043d\u0434. \u0422\u0430\u0431\u0438\u0438\u0439 \u043a\u0430\u0443\u0447\u0443\u043a\n\u0432\u0430 \u043f\u0430\u043b\u043c\u0430 \u0451<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u0438<\/span> \u0438\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0431 \u0447\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0448 \u0431<\/span>\u045e<\/span>\u0439\u0438\u0447\u0430 \u0434\u0443\u043d\u0451\u0434\u0430 \u0431\u0438\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0447\u0438 <\/span>\u045e<\/span>\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0430 \u0442\u0443\u0440\u0430\u0434\u0438. \u0422\u0440\u043e\u043f\u0438\u043a \u0434\u0430\u0440\u0430\u0445\u0442 \u0451<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u043e\u0447\u0438\u0434\u0430\u043d\n\u044f\u0441\u0430\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0431\u0443\u044e\u043c\u043b\u0430\u0440, \u0442\u0430\u043c\u0430\u043a\u0438, \u0447\u043e\u0439, <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0432\u0430, \u0437\u0438\u0440\u0430\u0432\u043e\u0440\n\u0434\u043e\u0440\u0438\u0432\u043e\u0440\u043b\u0430\u0440, \u0448\u0443\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\u0434\u0435\u043a, \u0431\u0430\u043b\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span> \u0432\u0430 \u0434\u0435\u043d\u0433\u0438\u0437 \u043c\u0430<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0441\u0443\u043b <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0437\u0438\u0431\n\u0431\u0435\u0440\u0443\u0432\u0447\u0438 \u044d\u043d\u0433 \u043a\u0430\u0442\u0442\u0430 \u0434\u0430\u0432\u043b\u0430\u0442\u0434\u0438\u0440. \u0410\u0441\u043e\u0441\u0438\u0439 \u0434\u043e\u043d\u043b\u0438 \u044d\u043a\u0438\u043d\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438-\u0448\u043e\u043b\u0438, \u043c\u0430\u043a\u043a\u0430\u0436<\/span>\u045e<\/span>\u0445\u043e\u0440\u0438. \u0427\u043e\u0440\u0432\u0430\u0447\u0438\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0438\u0434\u0430 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u0440\u0430\u043c\u043e\u043b, \u0447<\/span>\u045e<\/span>\u0447<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430, \u044d\u0447\u043a\u0438, <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u045e<\/span>\u0439, \u0439\u0438\u043b<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438,\n\u043f\u0430\u0440\u0440\u0430\u043d\u0434\u0430 \u0431\u043e<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043b\u0430\u0434\u0438.\n\u0418\u043d\u0434\u043e\u043d\u0435\u0437\u0438\u044f <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0443\u0434\u0443\u0434\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\n65% <\/span>\u045e<\/span>\u0440\u043c\u043e\u043d \u0431\u0438\u043b\u0430\u043d <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u043f\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0433\u0430\u043d\n\u0431<\/span>\u045e<\/span>\u043b\u0438\u0431, <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043c\u043c\u0430\u0442\u0431\u0430<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u043e \u0451<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u043e\u0447\n\u0442\u0430\u0439\u0451\u0440\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0430\u0434\u0438. \u041a\u043e\u043d\u0447\u0438\u043b\u0438\u043a \u0441\u0430\u043d\u043e\u0430\u0442\u0438 \u0431\u044e\u0434\u0436\u0435\u0442 \u0442\u0443\u0448\u0443\u043c\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433  <\/span>\u0430\u043d\u0447\u0430 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0441\u043c\u0438\u043d\u0438 \u0442\u0430<\/span>\u044c<\/span>\u043c\u0438\u043d\u043b\u0430\u0439\u0434\u0438. \u0419\u0438\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0430 <\/span>\u045e<\/span>\u0440\u0442\u0430\u0447\u0430 576 \u043c\u043b\u043d \u0431\u0430\u0440\u0440\u0435\u043b \u043d\u0435\u0444\u0442 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