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ФОЙДАЛИ САЙТЛАР
Швед кимёгари, ихтирочиси Альфред Нобель таваллуд топган кун
1833-10-21

{"uz":"

Alfred Nobel<\/span><\/span> <\/span><\/span><\/div>\n
NOBEL MUKOFOTI TARIXIGA BIR\nNAZAR<\/span><\/div><\/span>\n
\n
\nNobel mukofoti ilg'or\nilmiy tadqikotlar, inqilobiy kashfiyotlar yoki madaniyat yoxud jamiyat\ntaraqiyotiga qo'shilgan ulkan xizmatlar uchun takdim etiladigan eng nufuzli\nmukofotlardan biridir. <\/span><\/span>Mukofot bilan aloxida shaxslar\ntakdirlanadi, faqatgina Tinchlik mukofoti bundan mustasno. Tinchlik bo'yicha\nNobel mukofoti rasmiy va jamoat tashkilotlariga xam berilishi mumkin. Bir shaxs\nfaqat bir marta Nobel sohibi bo'lishi mumkinligi belgilangani holda tarixda bu\nqoidadan bir necha bor chekinilgan xolatlar uchraydi. 1968-yildan buyon\nmukofotni bir vaqtning uzida uch kishidan ortiq shaxslarga berilmasligi ham\nkoida sifatida kiritildi. Nomzod unga mukofot berilishi e'lon kilingan vaktda\nxayot bo'lib (bu odatda oktyabr oyiga tugri keladi), shu yilning 10 dekabriga\nkadar olamdan utgan bulsa, unga ushbu mukofotni vafotidan sung berish mumkin,\nbu haqidagi qaror 1974- yilda qabul kilingan.<\/span><\/span> <\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>Nobel<\/span><\/span>\u044c<\/span><\/span> mukofotlari Alfred Nobel\nvasiyatnomasiga binoan ta'sis etilgan. Nobel uzi kim edi?<\/span><\/span> <\/span><\/span>Alfred Bernxard Nobel 1833-yilning 21-oktyabr<\/span><\/span>\u044c<\/span><\/span>\nkuni Shvesiya poytaxti Stokgol<\/span><\/span>\u044c<\/span><\/span>mda tavallud topgan. Alfred Emmanuel\nva Andrietta Nobellarning uchinchi ugli edi. 1842-yilning kuz oylarida Nobellar\noilasi Sankt-Peterburgga kuchib kelishgan. Bulajak olimning otasi bu erda\ntorpedolar tayyorlash buyicha ish boshlaydi. 1849 yilda Alfred ukish uchun\nEvropa va Amerikaga yul oladi. U Daniya, Germaniya, Italiya, Fransiya va keyin\nAKShda buladi. Bu safar kariyb ikki yil davom etadi. Rossiyaga qaytgach, Alfred\noilaga tegishli, Rossiya armiyasining harbiy buyurtmalarini amalga oshiradigan\nfabrikalarni boshqarish bilan shugullanadi. Bu ishlar inqirozga yuz tutgach,\notasi bilan Shvesiyaga kaytishga majbur bo'lgan Alfred portlovchi moddalarni\nurganishga kirishadi, ayniksa, nitrogliserinni xavfsiz ishlab chiqarish va undan\nfoydalanish uni kuproq qiziktirardi. 1868 yilda Nobel dinamitga patent oladi.\nUz kashfiyotiii targib kilar ekan, u portlovchi moddaning imkoniyatlarini\nnamoyish etar, uning kanday ishlashi xaqida ma'ruzalar qilardi. Natijada Nobel\nkashfiyotiga kundan-kun kuproq odamlar kiziqish bildira boshlaydilar. Alfred\ndinamit va boshqa portlovchi moddalar ishlab chiqarish,shuningdek, Bokudagi\nneft maydonlarini ochish ishlaridan katta mol-mulkka ega bo'lgan.<\/span><\/span> <\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>1888 yilda muxbirlar xatosi bilan Alfred Nobelning\no'limi hakida xabar berilgan. Bu olim uchun juda og'ir taassurot koldiradi.Uni\njurnalistlar \u00abkonga botgan millioner\u00bb, \u00abdinamit qiroli\u00bb deya ta'riflashgan edi.\nBundan ta'sirlangan olim tarixda \u00abdunyoviy miqyosdagi jinoyatchi\u00bb sifatida\nkolmaslik uchun jiddiy uylab koladi. Nobel 1889-yilda Butunjahon tinchlik\nkongressida qatnashadi. U 1896-yilning 10-dekabr kuni stenokardiya xurujidan\nvafot etgan. Olim Stokgolmdagi Norra qabristoniga dafn etilgan.<\/span><\/span> <\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>Nobelning 1895-yil 27-noyabr kuni yozilgan\nvasiyatnomasida shunday suzlar bor edi: \u00abMening barcha kuchmas va kuchirib\nbuladigan mol-mulkim vasiylarim tomonidan tez pulga aylanadigan boyliklarga\nyunaltirilgan, shu yul bilan topilgan mablaglar ishonchli bankka\njoylashtirilgan. Ushbu quyilmalardan keladigan daromadlar ularni xar yili yil\ndavomida insoniyatga eng katta foyda keltirgan kishilarga mukofotlar tarzida\ntaqsimlaydigan fondga tegishli bulish lozim....Ko'zda tutilayotgan foizlar\nquyidagi besh yunalishga teng ravishda bulinadi:<\/span><\/span> <\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>birinchisi \u2014 fizika soqasida eng muxim kashfiyot yoki\nyangilik yaratganlar,<\/span><\/span> <\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>ikkinchisi \u2014 kimyo yunaliishda eng muxim kashfiyot\nyaratgan yoki bu fanni mukammallashtirishga xissa qushganlar,<\/span><\/span> <\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>uchinchi - fiziologiya yoki tibbiyot soxasida eng\nkatta muvaffaqiyat qozonganlar,<\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>turtinchisi \u2014 goyaviy yunalishda eng nodir adabiy asar\nyaratgan va<\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>beshinchisi \u2014 millatlarni jipslashtirish, qullikni\nbartaraf etish xamda mavjud armiyalar sonini qisqartirish va tinchlik\nxarakatlarini amalga oshirishga xissa qushganlar uchun...<\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>Mening aloxida istagim shundan iboratki, mukofotlarni\nberishda nomzodlarning qaysi millatga mansub ekanligiga e'tibor berishmasin\u00bb.<\/span><\/span> <\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>Shunday kilib, Nobel<\/span><\/span>\u044c<\/span><\/span>\nvasiyatiga kura, ushbu mukofot fakatgina besh yunalishda ta'sis etilgan. Bular:\nAdabiyot (1901 yildan e'tiboran, Shvesiyada beriladi);<\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>Fizika (1901 yildan Shvesiyada takdim etiladi);<\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>Kimyo (1901 yildan buyon Shvesiyada beriladi);<\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>Fiziologiya va tibbiyot (1901 yildan e'tiboran,\nShvesiyada<\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>beriladi);<\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>Tinchlik (1901 yildan e'tiboran,Norvegiyada\ntogshiriladi) buyicha Nobel mukofotlaridir.<\/span><\/span> <\/span><\/span>
\n<\/span>Bundan tashqari, Shvesiya banki tashabbusi bilan\n1969-yilda Iktisodiyot yunalishidagi Nobel mukofoti ham ta'sis egildi. Ushbu\nmukofotni takdim etish shartlari ham ilgarigilari bilan bir xil. Shundan eung,\nNobel<\/span><\/span>\u044c<\/span><\/span>\njamg'arma si boshkaruvi nominasiyalar sonini kupaytirmaslikka qaror kildi.\nShuni ta'kidlash lozimki, fanning kupgina tarmoq va sohalari Nobel mukofoti\nbilan qamrab olinmagan. Aytishlaricha, Alfred Nobel dastlab sohalar ruyxatini\ntuzganda, unga matematikani ham kiritgan edi. Ammo keyinroq, uning urniga\nTinchlik mukofotini yozadi. Buning aniq tafsiloti ma'lum emas. Asosiy\nsabablardan biri sifatida usha paytda Shvesiyada matematika soqasiningetakchisi\nbo'lgan Mittag-Leffler nomini keltirishadi, uni Nobel Stokgolm universiteti\nuchun hadeb xayriya surab kelavergani uchun yoqtirmay qolgan,deyishadi. Boshqa\nbir taxminga kura, Nobel yoqtirib qolgan Sofya Kovalevskayaning uni tashlab,\nMittag-Lefflerni tanlagani bunga sabab bo'lgan. Yana bir extimol shuki, Nobel\nmukofot uchun sohalarni tanlar ekan, ularning insoniyatga aniq va kurinarli\nfoyda keltirishini maksad kilib olgan, matematika buyicha natijalar esa keng\njamoatchilik nazarida bunday toifaga kirmaydi. Iqtisodiyot buyicha Nobel\nmukofoti bilan bog'liq xarajatlar Nobel merosiga daxldor bo'lgan jamg'arma dan\najratilmaydi. Shuning uchun ham, uni xaqikiy darajada nobelcha, deb hisoblash\nbahsli masaladir. Iktisodiyot buyicha Nobel mukofoti sohibi har yili\n12-oktyabrda e'lon qilinadi. Barcha mukofotlar egalariga 10-dekabrda\ntopshiriladi. Nobel mukofoti sohibi bo'lgan shaxslardan \u00abNobel ma'ruzasi\u00bb bilan\nchiqish kilish talab etiladi. Bu ma'ruza shu nomdagi jamg'arma tomonidan\nalohida chop etiladi.<\/span><\/span><\/o:p><\/span><\/p>","uzc":"

\u0410\u043b\u044c\u0444\u0440\u0435\u0434 \u041d\u043e\u0431\u0435\u043b\u044c <\/o:p><\/span><\/p>\n\n

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\u043c\u0443\u0441\u0442\u0430\u0441\u043d\u043e.\n\u0422\u0438\u043d\u0447\u043b\u0438\u043a \u0431\u045e\u0439\u0438\u0447\u0430 \u041d\u043e\u0431\u0435\u043b\u044c \u043c\u0443\u043a\u043e\u0444\u043e\u0442\u0438 \u0440\u0430\u0441\u043c\u0438\u0439 \u0432\u0430 \u0436\u0430\u043c\u043e\u0430\u0442 \u0442\u0430\u0448\u043a\u0438\u043b\u043e\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0433\u0430 \u0445\u0430\u043c \u0431\u0435\u0440\u0438\u043b\u0438\u0448\u0438\n\u043c\u0443\u043c\u043a\u0438\u043d. \u0411\u0438\u0440 \u0448\u0430\u0445\u0441 \u0444\u0430<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0442 \u0431\u0438\u0440 \u043c\u0430\u0440\u0442\u0430 \u041d\u043e\u0431\u0435\u043b\u044c \u0441\u043e<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0438\u0431\u0438 \u0431\u045e\u043b\u0438\u0448\u0438 \u043c\u0443\u043c\u043a\u0438\u043d\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0438 \u0431\u0435\u043b\u0433\u0438\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0433\u0430\u043d\u0438 <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u043e\u043b\u0434\u0430 \u0442\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0445\u0434\u0430 \u0431\u0443 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u0438\u0434<\/span>\u0430\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0431\u0438\u0440 \u043d\u0435\u0447\u0430 \u0431\u043e\u0440 \u0447\u0435\u043a\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0445\u043e\u043b\u0430\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u0443\u0447\u0440\u0430\u0439\u0434\u0438. 1968-\u0439\u0438\u043b\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0431\u0443\u0451\u043d \u043c\u0443\u043a\u043e\u0444\u043e\u0442\u043d\u0438\n\u0431\u0438\u0440 \u0432\u0430<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0442\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0443\u0437\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0443\u0447 \u043a\u0438\u0448\u0438\u0434\u0430\u043d \u043e\u0440\u0442\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span> \u0448\u0430\u0445\u0441\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0433\u0430 \u0431\u0435\u0440\u0438\u043b\u043c\u0430\u0441\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0438 <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u043c \u043a\u043e\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0441\u0438\u0444\u0430\u0442\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u043a\u0438\u0440\u0438\u0442\u0438\u043b\u0434\u0438. \u041d\u043e\u043c\u0437\u043e\u0434 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\u0431\u0443 <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u043e\u0440 1974- \u0439\u0438\u043b\u0434\u0430 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0431\u0443\u043b \u043a\u0438\u043b\u0438\u043d\u0433\u0430\u043d. <\/span>
\n         \u041d\u043e\u0431\u0435\u043b\u044c \u043c\u0443\u043a\u043e\u0444\u043e\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438 \u0410\u043b\u044c\u0444\u0440\u0435\u0434 \u041d\u043e\u0431\u0435\u043b\u044c\n\u0432\u0430\u0441\u0438\u044f\u0442\u043d\u043e\u043c\u0430\u0441\u0438\u0433\u0430 \u0431\u0438\u043d\u043e\u0430\u043d \u0442\u0430\u044a\u0441\u0438\u0441 \u044d\u0442\u0438\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d. \u041d\u043e\u0431\u0435\u043b\u044c \u0443\u0437\u0438 \u043a\u0438\u043c \u044d\u0434\u0438? 
\n            \u0410\u043b\u044c\u0444\u0440\u0435\u0434 \u0411\u0435\u0440\u043d\u0445\u0430\u0440\u0434 \u041d\u043e\u0431\u0435\u043b\u044c 1833-\u0439\u0438\u043b\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\n21-\u043e\u043a\u0442\u044f\u0431\u0440\u044c \u043a\u0443\u043d\u0438 \u0428\u0432\u0435\u0446\u0438\u044f \u043f\u043e\u0439\u0442\u0430\u0445\u0442\u0438 \u0421\u0442\u043e\u043a\u0433\u043e\u043b\u044c\u043c\u0434\u0430 \u0442\u0430\u0432\u0430\u043b\u043b\u0443\u0434 \u0442\u043e\u043f\u0433\u0430\u043d. \u0410\u043b\u044c\u0444\u0440\u0435\u0434 \u042d\u043c\u043c\u0430\u043d\u0443\u044d\u043b\u044c\n\u0432\u0430 \u0410\u043d\u0434\u0440\u0438\u0435\u0442\u0442\u0430 \u041d\u043e\u0431\u0435\u043b\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0443\u0447\u0438\u043d\u0447\u0438 \u0443\u0433\u043b\u0438 \u044d\u0434\u0438. 1842-\u0439\u0438\u043b\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u043a\u0443\u0437 \u043e\u0439\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0434\u0430 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\u0413\u0435\u0440\u043c\u0430\u043d\u0438\u044f, \u0418\u0442\u0430\u043b\u0438\u044f, \u0424\u0440\u0430\u043d\u0446\u0438\u044f \u0432\u0430 \u043a\u0435\u0439\u0438\u043d \u0410\u041a\u0428\u0434\u0430 \u0431\u0443\u043b\u0430\u0434\u0438.\n\u0411\u0443 \u0441\u0430\u0444\u0430\u0440 \u043a\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0439\u0431 \u0438\u043a\u043a\u0438 \u0439\u0438\u043b \u0434\u0430\u0432\u043e\u043c \u044d\u0442\u0430\u0434\u0438. \u0420\u043e\u0441\u0441\u0438\u044f\u0433\u0430 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0439\u0442\u0433\u0430\u0447,\n\u0410\u043b\u044c\u0444\u0440\u0435\u0434 \u043e\u0438\u043b\u0430\u0433\u0430 \u0442\u0435\u0433<\/span>\u0438\u0448\u043b\u0438, \u0420\u043e\u0441\u0441\u0438\u044f \u0430\u0440\u043c\u0438\u044f\u0441\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0431\u0438\u0439 \u0431\u0443\u044e\u0440\u0442\u043c\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0438 \u0430\u043c\u0430\u043b\u0433\u0430 \u043e\u0448\u0438\u0440\u0430\u0434\u0438\u0433\u0430\u043d\n\u0444\u0430\u0431\u0440\u0438\u043a\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438 \u0431\u043e\u0448<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0448 \u0431\u0438\u043b\u0430\u043d \u0448\u0443\u0433\u0443\u043b\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0430\u0434\u0438.\n\u0411\u0443 \u0438\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u0438\u043d<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0440\u043e\u0437\u0433\u0430 \u044e\u0437 \u0442\u0443\u0442\u0433\u0430\u0447, \u043e\u0442\u0430\u0441\u0438 \u0431\u0438\u043b\u0430\u043d \u0428\u0432\u0435\u0446\u0438\u044f\u0433\u0430\n\u043a\u0430\u0439\u0442\u0438\u0448\u0433\u0430 \u043c\u0430\u0436\u0431\u0443\u0440 \u0431\u045e\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0410\u043b\u044c\u0444\u0440\u0435\u0434 \u043f\u043e\u0440\u0442\u043b\u043e\u0432\u0447\u0438 \u043c\u043e\u0434\u0434\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438 \u0443\u0440\u0433\u0430\u043d\u0438\u0448\u0433\u0430 \u043a\u0438\u0440\u0438\u0448\u0430\u0434\u0438,\n\u0430\u0439\u043d\u0438\u043a\u0441\u0430, \u043d\u0438\u0442\u0440\u043e\u0433\u043b\u0438\u0446\u0435\u0440\u0438\u043d\u043d\u0438 \u0445\u0430\u0432<\/span>\u0444\u0441\u0438\u0437 \u0438\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0431 \u0447\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0448 \u0432\u0430 \u0443\u043d\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0444\u043e\u0439\u0434\u0430\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0438\u0448 \u0443\u043d\u0438 \u043a\u0443\u043f\u0440\u043e<\/span>\u049b<\/span> <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0437\u0438\u043a\u0442\u0438\u0440\u0430\u0440\u0434\u0438. 1868 \u0439\u0438\u043b\u0434\u0430\n\u041d\u043e\u0431\u0435\u043b\u044c \u0434\u0438\u043d\u0430\u043c\u0438\u0442\u0433\u0430 \u043f\u0430\u0442\u0435\u043d\u0442 \u043e\u043b\u0430\u0434\u0438. \u0423\u0437 \u043a\u0430\u0448\u0444\u0438\u0451\u0442\u0438\u0438\u0438 \u0442\u0430\u0440\u0433\u0438\u0431 \u043a\u0438\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u044d\u043a\u0430\u043d, \u0443 \u043f\u043e\u0440\u0442\u043b\u043e\u0432\u0447\u0438\n\u043c\u043e\u0434\u0434\u0430\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0438\u043c\u043a\u043e\u043d\u0438\u044f\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0438 \u043d\u0430\u043c\u043e\u0439\u0438\u0448 \u044d\u0442\u0430\u0440, \u0443\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u043a\u0430\u043d\u0434\u0430\u0439 \u0438\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0448\u0438 \u0445\u0430<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u043c\u0430\u044a\u0440\u0443\u0437\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0434\u0438.\n\u041d\u0430\u0442\u0438\u0436\u0430\u0434\u0430 \u041d\u043e\u0431\u0435\u043b\u044c \u043a\u0430\u0448<\/span>\u0444\u0438\u0451\u0442\u0438\u0433\u0430 \u043a\u0443\u043d\u0434\u0430\u043d-\u043a\u0443\u043d \u043a\u0443\u043f\u0440\u043e<\/span>\u049b<\/span> \u043e\u0434\u0430\u043c\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u043a\u0438\u0437\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0448 \u0431\u0438\u043b\u0434\u0438\u0440\u0430\n\u0431\u043e\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0439\u0434\u0438\u043b\u0430\u0440. \u0410\u043b\u044c\u0444\u0440\u0435\u0434 \u0434\u0438\u043d\u0430\u043c\u0438\u0442 \u0432\u0430 \u0431\u043e\u0448<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430 \u043f\u043e\u0440\u0442\u043b\u043e\u0432\u0447\u0438 \u043c\u043e\u0434\u0434\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\n\u0438\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0431 \u0447\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0448,\u0448\u0443\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\u0434\u0435\u043a, \u0411\u043e\u043a\u0443\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438 \u043d\u0435\u0444\u0442\u044c \u043c\u0430\u0439\u0434\u043e\u043d\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0438\n\u043e\u0447\u0438\u0448 \u0438\u0448\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0434\u0430\u043d \u043a\u0430\u0442\u0442\u0430 \u043c\u043e\u043b-\u043c\u0443\u043b\u043a\u043a\u0430 \u044d\u0433\u0430 \u0431\u045e\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d. <\/span>
\n       1888 \u0439\u0438\u043b\u0434\u0430 \u043c\u0443\u0445\u0431\u0438\u0440\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u0445\u0430\u0442\u043e\u0441\u0438 \u0431\u0438\u043b\u0430\u043d \u0410\u043b\u044c\u0444\u0440\u0435\u0434 \u041d\u043e\u0431\u0435\u043b\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\n\u045e\u043b\u0438\u043c\u0438 <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u043a\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0445\u0430\u0431\u0430\u0440 \u0431\u0435\u0440\u0438\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d. \u0411\u0443 \u043e\u043b\u0438\u043c \u0443\u0447\u0443\u043d \u0436\u0443\u0434\u0430 \u043e<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u0438\u0440 \u0442\u0430\u0430\u0441\u0441\u0443\u0440\u043e\u0442 \u043a\u043e\u043b\u0434\u0438\u0440\u0430\u0434\u0438.\u0423\u043d\u0438 \u0436\u0443\u0440\u043d\u0430\u043b\u0438\u0441\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u00ab\u043a\u043e\u043d\u0433\u0430\n\u0431\u043e\u0442\u0433\u0430\u043d \u043c\u0438\u043b\u043b\u0438\u043e\u043d\u0435\u0440\u00bb, \u00ab\u0434\u0438\u043d\u0430\u043c\u0438\u0442 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0440\u043e\u043b\u0438\u00bb \u0434\u0435\u044f \u0442\u0430\u044a\u0440\u0438\u0444\u043b\u0430\u0448\u0433\u0430\u043d\n\u044d\u0434\u0438. \u0411\u0443\u043d\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0442\u0430\u044a\u0441\u0438\u0440\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0433\u0430\u043d \u043e\u043b\u0438\u043c \u0442\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0445\u0434\u0430 \u00ab\u0434\u0443\u043d\u0451\u0432\u0438\u0439 \u043c\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0451\u0441\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438\n\u0436\u0438\u043d\u043e\u044f\u0442\u0447\u0438\u00bb \u0441\u0438\u0444\u0430\u0442\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u043a\u043e\u043b\u043c\u0430\u0441\u043b\u0438\u043a \u0443\u0447\u0443\u043d \u0436\u0438\u0434\u0434\u0438\u0439 \u0443<\/span>\u0439\u043b\u0430\u0431 \u043a\u043e\u043b\u0430\u0434\u0438. \u041d\u043e\u0431\u0435\u043b\u044c\n1889-\u0439\u0438\u043b\u0434\u0430 \u0411\u0443\u0442\u0443\u043d\u0436\u0430<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u043e\u043d \u0442\u0438\u043d\u0447\u043b\u0438\u043a \u043a\u043e\u043d\u0433\u0440\u0435\u0441\u0441\u0438\u0434\u0430 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0442\u043d\u0430\u0448\u0430\u0434\u0438. \u0423 1896-\u0439\u0438\u043b\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 10-\u0434\u0435\u043a\u0430\u0431\u0440\u044c \u043a\u0443\u043d\u0438\n\u0441\u0442\u0435\u043d\u043e\u043a\u0430\u0440\u0434\u0438\u044f \u0445\u0443\u0440\u0443\u0436\u0438\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0432\u0430\u0444\u043e\u0442 \u044d\u0442\u0433\u0430\u043d. \u041e\u043b\u0438\u043c \u0421\u0442\u043e\u043a\u0433\u043e\u043b\u044c\u043c\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438 \u041d\u043e\u0440\u0440\u0430 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0431\u0440\u0438\u0441\u0442\u043e\u043d\u0438\u0433\u0430 \u0434\u0430\u0444\u043d \u044d\u0442\u0438\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d. <\/span>
\n       \u041d\u043e\u0431\u0435\u043b\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 1895-\u0439\u0438\u043b 27-\u043d\u043e\u044f\u0431\u0440\u044c \u043a\u0443\u043d\u0438 \u0451\u0437\u0438\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d\n\u0432\u0430\u0441\u0438\u044f\u0442\u043d\u043e\u043c\u0430\u0441\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0448\u0443\u043d\u0434\u0430\u0439 \u0441\u0443\u0437\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u0431\u043e\u0440 \u044d\u0434\u0438: \u00ab\u041c\u0435\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0431\u0430\u0440\u0447\u0430 \u043a\u0443\u0447\u043c\u0430\u0441 \u0432\u0430 \u043a\u0443\u0447\u0438\u0440\u0438\u0431 \u0431\u0443\u043b\u0430\u0434\u0438\u0433\u0430\u043d\n\u043c\u043e\u043b-\u043c\u0443\u043b\u043a\u0438\u043c \u0432\u0430\u0441\u0438\u0439\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u043c \u0442\u043e\u043c\u043e\u043d\u0438\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0442\u0435\u0437 \u043f\u0443\u043b\u0433\u0430 \u0430\u0439\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0430\u0434\u0438\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0431\u043e\u0439\u043b\u0438\u043a\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0433\u0430\n\u0439\u0443\u043d\u0430\u043b\u0442\u0438\u0440\u0438\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d, \u0448\u0443 \u0439\u0443\u043b \u0431\u0438\u043b\u0430\u043d \u0442\u043e\u043f\u0438\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d \u043c\u0430\u0431\u043b\u0430\u0433\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u0438\u0448\u043e\u043d\u0447\u043b\u0438 \u0431\u0430\u043d\u043a\u043a\u0430 \u0436\u043e\u0439\u043b\u0430\u0448\u0442\u0438\u0440\u0438\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d.\n\u0423\u0448\u0431\u0443 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0443\u0439\u0438\u043b\u043c\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0434\u0430\u043d \u043a\u0435\u043b\u0430\u0434\u0438\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0434\u0430\u0440\u043e\u043c\u0430\u0434\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u0443\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438 <\/span>\u0445\u0430\u0440 \u0439\u0438\u043b\u0438 \u0439\u0438\u043b \u0434\u0430\u0432\u043e\u043c\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0438\u043d\u0441\u043e\u043d\u0438\u044f\u0442\u0433\u0430 \u044d\u043d\u0433 \u043a\u0430\u0442\u0442\u0430 \u0444\u043e\u0439\u0434\u0430 \u043a\u0435\u043b\u0442\u0438\u0440\u0433\u0430\u043d \u043a\u0438\u0448\u0438\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0433\u0430\n\u043c\u0443\u043a\u043e\u0444\u043e\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u0442\u0430\u0440\u0437\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0442\u0430<\/span>\u049b<\/span>


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