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0000-10-23

{"uz":"

Divali\nyoki Dipavali bu xindistonda nishonlanadigan olov festivali. Bu festival\njanubiy osiyoda juda ommabop festival bo\u2019lib, bu bayram oktyabr yoki noyabr\noyining oxirgi besh kunida nishonlanadi. <\/o:p><\/span><\/p>\n\n

 <\/span>Xindistonning turli  <\/span>qismlarida bayramlar uchun maxsus taqvimlar\ntuzilgan.Eng mashhur bayram  <\/span>-\nDivali <\/span><\/span>oktyabr\noxiri yoki noyabr boshlarida nishonlanadi. Divali  <\/span>-yangi yil bayramidir.Lekin u Xindistonning\nturli  <\/span>qismlarida turli xil ma'no kasb\netadi. Divalida marosim shamlari yoqiladi,sovg\u2019alar almashiniladi, ibodatlar\nesa Lakshmiga, boylik va farovonlik ma'budasiga qaratilgan bo\u2019ladi. Bahorgi Xoli\nbayrami ko\u2019cha raqslari va yurishlar, gulxanlar yozish va turli erkinliklarga\nberilish bilan nishonlanadi: odamlar bir-birlariga bo\u2019yoqli kukunlar sepishadi\nyoki ustilariga bo\u2019yoqli suvlardan sochishadi. Boshqa mashhur marosimlar  <\/span>qtoriga Shimoliy Xindistonda vayshnavlar\ntomonidan  <\/span>nishonlanadigan Dasharani\neslab  <\/span>o\u2019tish joizdir, bundan tashqari\nMaxarashtrdagi Ganapati, Orissa va Pongaldagi Dolayatr yoki ar<\/span>\u0493<\/span>imchoqlar <\/span>bayrami,\nJanubiy Xindistondagi guruch bayrami va boshqalardir.HINDUIYLIK  <\/span>Hinduiylik juda murakkab dindir.\nU bir tomondan yirik ijtimoiy tashkilot, ikkinchi tomondan turli dinlar\nqorishmasidir. Ijtimoiy  <\/span>tashkilot\nsifatida kastachilik asosiga  <\/span>qurilgan.\nMa'lumki, mil. av. VI asrda  <\/span>Hindistonda\nbuddizm dini vujudga keldi. U braxmanizmdagi bir necha jihatlarni  <\/span>qabul \n<\/span>qilgan bo\u2019lsada, kasta ta'limotini inkor etdi.<\/p>\n\n

O\u2019sha\ndavrda  <\/span>Hindistondagi kasta tuzumini\nsahlab  <\/span>holishga, braxmanizm dinini isloh\nqilib, qayta tiklashga harakat boshlandi. Bu harakat braxmanizm bilan buddizm\no\u2019rtasidagi kurashni ifodalovchi Hinduiylik edi. Bu din, asosan,  <\/span>Hindistonda tarqalgan bo\u2019lib, mamlakat\naholisining 83%, ya'ni 650 mln. kishi shu dinga e'tiqod  <\/span>qiladi. \n<\/span>Hinduiylik e'tiqod qiluvchilar soni jihatidan jahonda uchinchi o\u2019rinda\nturadi. Barcha Hinduistlarning soni 700 mln.ni tashkil etadi. Yirik jamoalar\nBangladeshda (12 mln.), Indoneziyada (3,6 mln.), Shri Lankada (3 mln.),\nPokistonda (1,5 mln.), Malayziyada (1 mln.), AQShda (0,5 mln.), Butanda (0,3\nmln.) mavjud. Hinduiylik uni  <\/span>qabul  <\/span>qilmoqchi bo\u2019lganlarga  <\/span>qo\u2019yadigan birinchi va asosiy shart\nHindistondagi kasta tuzumini qabul qilishdir.Diniy  <\/span>qorishma sifatida  <\/span>Hinduiylik \n<\/span>oriylargacha bo\u2019lgan dinlar, \n<\/span>Hind-skif jamoalarining ibtidoiy diniy tasavvurlarini va  <\/span>qadimgi braxmanlarning buddizm bilan\naralashgan  <\/span>qadimiy urf-odatlarini o\u2019zida\nmujassamqilgan. Shunisi  <\/span>qiziqki,  <\/span>Hinduiylik o\u2019zining asosi  <\/span>hisoblanadigan vedizm va braxmanizmdan tashqi\nko\u2019rinishda farqlanadi. Unda yangi braxmanizm dinlari, <\/o:p><\/span><\/p>\n\n

to\u2019<\/span>\u0493<\/span>riro<\/span>\u0493<\/span>i, oqimlari\nmujassamdir. Ularning barchasini umumiy jihatlariga qarab bir guruhga jamlash\nmumkin: tushuncha va  <\/span>qonunlarning asl\nmanbai bo\u2019lgan vedalarning muqaddasligi; guru (pir, ustoz)ning tan olinishi;\nmuqaddas joylarga ziyoratga borish; sanskritning muqaddas til ekanligi; va\nnihoyat, sigirning muqaddas ekanligi. Bu besh \n<\/span>qoida yoki aqida umum tomonidan tan olingan bo\u2019lsa-da, ko\u2019p sonli\ne'tiqod  <\/span>qiluvchilar orasida o\u2019ziga\nyarasha farq va o\u2019ziga xoslik kasb etgan. Hinduiylikda keyingi davrda\nvedalardan tashqari xalq  <\/span>og\u2019i ijodi namunalari,\njumladan, \u00abMaxabxarata\u00bb  <\/span>am muhaddas\nyozuvlar  <\/span>qatoriga qo\u2019shilgan.  <\/span>Hinduiylikda \n<\/span>ham braxmanlar asosiy o\u2019rinni egallaydi. Shuning uchun  <\/span>ham mazkur adabiyotlarning ko\u2019pchiligi\nbraxmanlar tomonidan yaratilgan. Ular eski aqidalarning zamon talabiga javob\nbermasligini ko\u2019rib, yangi qonun 5 qoidalarga mos ravishda turli oqimlarni\nyuzaga keltirdilar. Ular shu yo\u2019l   <\/span>bilan\no\u2019z raqiblari qisoblangan buddistlarga qarshi kurash olib bordilar.6 Hinduizm,\nHindiston yarimorolida yashaydigan \n<\/span>halqning aksariyatiga oid bo\u2019lgan diniy ishonch-e'tiqod va urf-odatlarni\nifodalovchi bir so\u2019zdir. Bu so\u2019z, \u201cIndus Daryosining atrofida yashovchi\u201d\nma'nosini bildiruvchi forscha bir <\/span>so\u2019zdan\nkelib chiqqan bo\u2019lib,  <\/span><\/span>\u0493<\/span>arbliklar bu mintaqa xalqining dinini\nifodalash uchun ishlatganlar.  <\/span>Hindlar\nesa o\u2019z dinlarini \u201cSanatana Dxarma\u201d (azaliy-abadiy din) deya nomlaydilar. Tax.\nmil. avv. 1500-yillarda (bu tarixning mil. avv. 2500-mil. avv. 1500 orasida,\ntaxminan mil. avv. 2000 yillar ekanligi \n<\/span>ham taxmin  <\/span>qilinadi) Sharqiy\nYevropadan ko\u2019chib kelgan Oriylar,  <\/span>Hindistonni istilo  <\/span>qiladilar. Natijada ularning diniy ishonch va\nurf-odatlari bilan mahalliy  <\/span>qora tanli\nhalqning e'tiqodi bir-biriga aralashib ketadi. 100 yillar davom etgan bu\naralashish natijasida nihoyat Hinduzm paydo bo\u2019ladi. Hind madaniyati va tarixi  <\/span>xaqida aniq \n<\/span>va ishonarli ma'lumotga ega bo\u2019lishimiz uchun oriylar  <\/span>haqida yetarlicha ma'lumotga ega bo\u2019lishimiz\nkerak bo\u2019ladi. Oriylar oq  <\/span>tanli  <\/span>qavmlar bo\u2019lib,  <\/span>Hazar (Kasbiy) dengizining shimoliy\nmintaqalarida, Yevropaning shimolida yoki Turkmaniston mintaqasida mil. avv.\nXVII- XVI-asrlarda XII-asrgacha yashaganlar. Ya'ni 3300 bilan 4000 yil oldin\nturli  <\/span>qabila va guruhlar shaklda  <\/span>hukm surganlar. Asta-sekinlik bilan Hindiston\ntomonga kirib kelaboshlaganlar. Eronning baland tekisliklari va cho\u2019llarini\nmaskan tutganlar. Davrlar o\u2019tishi bilan ular; Eron va  <\/span>Hindiston oriylarini tashkil qilganlar.\nDastlab alohida davlat ko\u2019rinishida bo\u2019lmasdan, balki bir-birlariga yaqin\ntushunchali qavmlar bo\u2019lishgan. Shu sababli ibtidoiy Hindiston va Eron\ndinlariga  <\/span>qaraganimizda bir-biriga\no\u2019xshash e'tiqodlardagi tangrilarni ko\u2019ramiz, ismlari ham o\u2019xshash. O\u2019xshash\ne'tiqodlari bo\u2019lgan, xatto mushtarak bir tillari bo\u2019lgan ikki xalq; qadim\nforscha va sanskritcha bir tilning ikki lahjasidir. Keyinchalik oriylar ikki  <\/span>qismga bo\u2019linganlar va ikki o\u2019lkada  <\/span>-Eron va \n<\/span>Hindistonda- joylashganlar. Natijada geografik jihatdan  <\/span>ham bir-birlaridan alohida yashagan bir xil  <\/span>hayot tarziga ega oriylarning\nbosqichma-bosqich tillarida  <\/span>ham\no\u2019zgarishlar vujudga <\/span>kelaboshlagan.\nDavrlar o\u2019tib oriylar eron va Hind xalqining anchagina qismini tashkil  <\/span>qilganlar. Ko\u2019chishlari natijasida\nkeyinchalik  <\/span><\/span>\u0493<\/span>arb tomonga, yunon va Rimgacha kirib\nborganlar va  <\/span><\/span>\u0493<\/span>arb madaniyatini vujudga keltirganlar. Bu\nko\u2019chmanchi oriy  <\/span>qavmining asl markazi\nbo\u2019lgan  <\/span>Hindistonda yangi bir  <\/span>harakat, jonlanish va o\u2019zgarishlar vujudga\nkeltirganligini ko\u2019rish mumkin...1        <\/span>Hinduiylikka e'tiqod  <\/span>qiluvchilar asosan  <\/span>Hindistonda yashaydilar. Pokiston,\nBangladesh, Nepal, Shri-Lanka, shuningdek, Janubiy Afrikada, Janubiy-Sharqiy\nOsiyoda  <\/span>ham uchraydi.  <\/span>Hinduiylikka \n<\/span>780  <\/span>mln. kishi e'tiqod qiladi.  <\/span>Milodning 1-ming yilligida shakllangan.  <\/span>Hinduiylik veda dini va braxmanizm\nrivojlanishi va unga keyinchalik xalq \n<\/span>e'tiqodi, urf-odatlari, marosimlari singib ketishi jarayonida paydo\nbo\u2019lgan.  <\/span>O\u2019rta asrlarda  <\/span>hukmron mafkuraga aylangan.<\/span><\/p>\n\n

 <\/o:p><\/span><\/p>\n\n

 <\/o:p><\/span><\/p>\n\n

 <\/o:p><\/span><\/p>\n\n

 <\/o:p><\/span><\/p>","uzc":"

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\u044d\u0441\u043b\u0430\u0431 \n<\/span>\u045e\u0442\u0438\u0448 \u0436\u043e\u0438\u0437\u0434\u0438\u0440, \u0431\u0443\u043d\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0442\u0430\u0448<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0438\n\u041c\u0430\u0445\u0430\u0440\u0430\u0448\u0442\u0440\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438 \u0413\u0430\u043d\u0430\u043f\u0430\u0442\u0438, \u041e\u0440\u0438\u0441\u0441\u0430 \u0432\u0430 \u041f\u043e\u043d\u0433\u0430\u043b\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438 \u0414\u043e\u043b\u0430\u044f\u0442\u0440 \u0451\u043a\u0438 \u0430\u0440<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u0438\u043c\u0447\u043e<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u0431\u0430\u0439\u0440\u0430\u043c\u0438,\n\u0416\u0430\u043d\u0443\u0431\u0438\u0439 \u0425\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0438\u0441\u0442\u043e\u043d\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438 \u0433\u0443\u0440\u0443\u0447 \u0431\u0430\u0439\u0440\u0430\u043c\u0438 \u0432\u0430 \u0431\u043e\u0448<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0434\u0438\u0440. <\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0418\u041d\u0414\u0423\u0418\u0419\u041b\u0418\u041a <\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0443\u0438\u0439\u043b\u0438\u043a \u0436\u0443\u0434\u0430\n\u043c\u0443\u0440\u0430\u043a\u043a\u0430\u0431 \u0434\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0438\u0440. \u0423 \u0431\u0438\u0440 \u0442\u043e\u043c\u043e\u043d\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0439\u0438\u0440\u0438\u043a \u0438\u0436\u0442\u0438\u043c\u043e\u0438\u0439 \u0442\u0430\u0448\u043a\u0438\u043b\u043e\u0442, \u0438\u043a\u043a\u0438\u043d\u0447\u0438 \u0442\u043e\u043c\u043e\u043d\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0442\u0443\u0440\u043b\u0438\n\u0434\u0438\u043d\u043b\u0430\u0440 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u0440\u0438\u0448\u043c\u0430\u0441\u0438\u0434\u0438\u0440. \u0418\u0436\u0442\u0438\u043c\u043e\u0438\u0439 \u0442\u0430\u0448\u043a\u0438\u043b\u043e\u0442 \u0441\u0438\u0444\u0430\u0442\u0438\u0434\u0430\n\u043a\u0430\u0441\u0442\u0430\u0447\u0438\u043b\u0438\u043a \u0430\u0441\u043e\u0441\u0438\u0433\u0430  <\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0443\u0440\u0438\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d. \u041c\u0430\u044a\u043b\u0443\u043c\u043a\u0438, \u043c\u0438\u043b. \u0430\u0432. VI \u0430\u0441\u0440\u0434\u0430  <\/span><\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0438\u0441\u0442\u043e\u043d\u0434\u0430\n\u0431\u0443\u0434\u0434\u0438\u0437\u043c \u0434\u0438\u043d\u0438 \u0432\u0443\u0436\u0443\u0434\u0433\u0430 \u043a\u0435\u043b\u0434\u0438. \u0423 \u0431\u0440\u0430\u0445\u043c\u0430\u043d\u0438\u0437\u043c\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438 \u0431\u0438\u0440 \u043d\u0435\u0447\u0430 \u0436\u0438<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438 \n<\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0431\u0443\u043b  <\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0431\u045e\u043b\u0441\u0430\u0434\u0430, \u043a\u0430\u0441\u0442\u0430 \u0442\u0430\u044a\u043b\u0438\u043c\u043e\u0442\u0438\u043d\u0438 \u0438\u043d\u043a\u043e\u0440\n\u044d\u0442\u0434\u0438.\u040e\u0448\u0430 \u0434\u0430\u0432\u0440\u0434\u0430  <\/span><\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0438\u0441\u0442\u043e\u043d\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438 \u043a\u0430\u0441\u0442\u0430 \u0442\u0443\u0437\u0443\u043c\u0438\u043d\u0438 \u0441\u0430<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u043b\u0430\u0431  <\/span><\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u043e\u043b\u0438\u0448\u0433\u0430, \u0431\u0440\u0430\u0445\u043c\u0430\u043d\u0438\u0437\u043c \u0434\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0438 \u0438\u0441\u043b\u043e<\/span>\u04b3<\/span> <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043b\u0438\u0431, <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0439\u0442\u0430 \u0442\u0438\u043a\u043b\u0430\u0448\u0433\u0430 <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0430\u043a\u0430\u0442\n\u0431\u043e\u0448\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0434\u0438. \u0411\u0443 <\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0430\u043a\u0430\u0442 \u0431\u0440\u0430\u0445\u043c\u0430\u043d\u0438\u0437\u043c \u0431\u0438\u043b\u0430\u043d \u0431\u0443\u0434\u0434\u0438\u0437\u043c \u045e\u0440\u0442\u0430\u0441\u0438\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438\n\u043a\u0443\u0440\u0430\u0448\u043d\u0438 \u0438\u0444\u043e\u0434\u0430\u043b\u043e\u0432\u0447\u0438 <\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0443\u0438\u0439\u043b\u0438\u043a \u044d\u0434\u0438.\n\u0411\u0443 \u0434\u0438\u043d, \u0430\u0441\u043e\u0441\u0430\u043d,  <\/span><\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0438\u0441\u0442\u043e\u043d\u0434\u0430 \u0442\u0430\u0440<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0431\u045e\u043b\u0438\u0431,\n\u043c\u0430\u043c\u043b\u0430\u043a\u0430\u0442 \u0430<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u043e\u043b\u0438\u0441\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 83%, \u044f\u044a\u043d\u0438 650 \u043c\u043b\u043d. \u043a\u0438\u0448\u0438 \u0448\u0443 \u0434\u0438\u043d\u0433\u0430\n\u044d\u044a\u0442\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u0434  <\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043b\u0430\u0434\u0438. \n<\/span><\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0443\u0438\u0439\u043b\u0438\u043a \u044d\u044a\u0442\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u0434 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043b\u0443\u0432\u0447\u0438\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u0441\u043e\u043d\u0438 \u0436\u0438<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u0442\u0438\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0436\u0430<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u043e\u043d\u0434\u0430 \u0443\u0447\u0438\u043d\u0447\u0438\n\u045e\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0430 \u0442\u0443\u0440\u0430\u0434\u0438. \u0411\u0430\u0440\u0447\u0430 <\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0443\u0438\u0441\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\n\u0441\u043e\u043d\u0438 700 \u043c\u043b\u043d.\u043d\u0438 \u0442\u0430\u0448\u043a\u0438\u043b \u044d\u0442\u0430\u0434\u0438. \u0419\u0438\u0440\u0438\u043a \u0436\u0430\u043c\u043e\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440 \u0411\u0430\u043d\u0433\u043b\u0430\u0434\u0435\u0448\u0434\u0430 (12 \u043c\u043b\u043d.), \u0418\u043d\u0434\u043e\u043d\u0435\u0437\u0438\u044f\u0434\u0430\n(3,6 \u043c\u043b\u043d.), \u0428\u0440\u0438 \u041b\u0430\u043d\u043a\u0430\u0434\u0430 (3 \u043c\u043b\u043d.), \u041f\u043e\u043a\u0438\u0441\u0442\u043e\u043d\u0434\u0430 (1,5 \u043c\u043b\u043d.), \u041c\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0439\u0437\u0438\u044f\u0434\u0430 (1 \u043c\u043b\u043d.), \u0410<\/span>\u049a<\/span>\u0428\u0434\u0430 (0,5 \u043c\u043b\u043d.), \u0411\u0443\u0442\u0430\u043d\u0434\u0430 (0,3 \u043c\u043b\u043d.) \u043c\u0430\u0432\u0436\u0443\u0434. <\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0443\u0438\u0439\u043b\u0438\u043a \u0443\u043d\u0438 \n<\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0431\u0443\u043b  <\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043b\u043c\u043e<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0447\u0438 \u0431\u045e\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0433\u0430  <\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u045e\u044f\u0434\u0438\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0431\u0438\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0447\u0438\n\u0432\u0430 \u0430\u0441\u043e\u0441\u0438\u0439 \u0448\u0430\u0440\u0442 <\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0438\u0441\u0442\u043e\u043d\u0434\u0430\u0433\u0438 \u043a\u0430\u0441\u0442\u0430 \u0442\u0443\u0437\u0443\u043c\u0438\u043d\u0438 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0431\u0443\u043b <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043b\u0438\u0448\u0434\u0438\u0440.\u0414\u0438\u043d\u0438\u0439  <\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u0440\u0438\u0448\u043c\u0430\n\u0441\u0438\u0444\u0430\u0442\u0438\u0434\u0430  <\/span><\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0443\u0438\u0439\u043b\u0438\u043a  <\/span>\u043e\u0440\u0438\u0439\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0433\u0430\u0447\u0430 \u0431\u045e\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0434\u0438\u043d\u043b\u0430\u0440,  <\/span><\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434-\u0441\u043a\u0438\u0444\n\u0436\u0430\u043c\u043e\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0438\u0431\u0442\u0438\u0434\u043e\u0438\u0439 \u0434\u0438\u043d\u0438\u0439 \u0442\u0430\u0441\u0430\u0432\u0432\u0443\u0440\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0438 \u0432\u0430 \n<\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0434\u0438\u043c\u0433\u0438 \u0431\u0440\u0430\u0445\u043c\u0430\u043d\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0431\u0443\u0434\u0434\u0438\u0437\u043c \u0431\u0438\u043b\u0430\u043d\n\u0430\u0440\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0448\u0433\u0430\u043d  <\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0434\u0438\u043c\u0438\u0439 \u0443\u0440\u0444-\u043e\u0434\u0430\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0438\n\u045e\u0437\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u043c\u0443\u0436\u0430\u0441\u0441\u0430\u043c<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d. \u0428\u0443\u043d\u0438\u0441\u0438 \n<\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0437\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043a\u0438,  <\/span><\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0443\u0438\u0439\u043b\u0438\u043a\n\u045e\u0437\u0438\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0430\u0441\u043e\u0441\u0438  <\/span><\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0438\u0441\u043e\u0431\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0430\u0434\u0438\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0432\u0435\u0434\u0438\u0437\u043c \u0432\u0430 \u0431\u0440\u0430\u0445\u043c\u0430\u043d\u0438\u0437\u043c\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0442\u0430\u0448<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438 \u043a\u045e\u0440\u0438\u043d\u0438\u0448\u0434\u0430 \u0444\u0430\u0440<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043b\u0430\u043d\u0430\u0434\u0438. \u0423\u043d\u0434\u0430\n\u044f\u043d\u0433\u0438 \u0431\u0440\u0430\u0445\u043c\u0430\u043d\u0438\u0437\u043c \u0434\u0438\u043d\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438, \u0442\u045e<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u0440\u0438\u0440\u043e<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u0438, \u043e<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043c\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\n\u043c\u0443\u0436\u0430\u0441\u0441\u0430\u043c\u0434\u0438\u0440. \u0423\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0431\u0430\u0440\u0447\u0430\u0441\u0438\u043d\u0438 \u0443\u043c\u0443\u043c\u0438\u0439 \u0436\u0438<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u0442\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438\u0433\u0430 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0430\u0431 \u0431\u0438\u0440 \u0433\u0443\u0440\u0443<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0433\u0430 \u0436\u0430\u043c\u043b\u0430\u0448\n\u043c\u0443\u043c\u043a\u0438\u043d: \u0442\u0443\u0448\u0443\u043d\u0447\u0430 \u0432\u0430  <\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u043d\u0443\u043d\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0430\u0441\u043b \u043c\u0430\u043d\u0431\u0430\u0438 \u0431\u045e\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d \u0432\u0435\u0434\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u043c\u0443<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0434\u0434\u0430\u0441\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0438; \u0433\u0443\u0440\u0443 (\u043f\u0438\u0440, \u0443\u0441\u0442\u043e\u0437)\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u0442\u0430\u043d \u043e\u043b\u0438\u043d\u0438\u0448\u0438;\n\u043c\u0443<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0434\u0434\u0430\u0441 \u0436\u043e\u0439\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0433\u0430 \u0437\u0438\u0451\u0440\u0430\u0442\u0433\u0430 \u0431\u043e\u0440\u0438\u0448; \u0441\u0430\u043d\u0441\u043a\u0440\u0438\u0442\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433\n\u043c\u0443<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0434\u0434\u0430\u0441 \u0442\u0438\u043b \u044d\u043a\u0430\u043d\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0438; \u0432\u0430 \u043d\u0438<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u043e\u044f\u0442, \u0441\u0438\u0433\u0438\u0440\u043d\u0438\u043d\u0433 \u043c\u0443<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0434\u0434\u0430\u0441 \u044d\u043a\u0430\u043d\u043b\u0438\u0433\u0438. \u0411\u0443 \u0431\u0435\u0448  <\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0451\u043a\u0438 \u0430<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u0443\u043c\u0443\u043c \u0442\u043e\u043c\u043e\u043d\u0438\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0442\u0430\u043d <\/span>\u043e\u043b\u0438\u043d\u0433\u0430\u043d\n\u0431\u045e\u043b\u0441\u0430-\u0434\u0430, \u043a\u045e\u043f \u0441\u043e\u043d\u043b\u0438 \u044d\u044a\u0442\u0438<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u043e\u0434  <\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0438\u043b\u0443\u0432\u0447\u0438\u043b\u0430\u0440\n\u043e\u0440\u0430\u0441\u0438\u0434\u0430 \u045e\u0437\u0438\u0433\u0430 \u044f\u0440\u0430\u0448\u0430 \u0444\u0430\u0440<\/span>\u049b<\/span> \u0432\u0430 \u045e\u0437\u0438\u0433\u0430\n\u0445\u043e\u0441\u043b\u0438\u043a \u043a\u0430\u0441\u0431 \u044d\u0442\u0433\u0430\u043d. <\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0443\u0438\u0439\u043b\u0438\u043a\u0434\u0430\n\u043a\u0435\u0439\u0438\u043d\u0433\u0438 \u0434\u0430\u0432\u0440\u0434\u0430 \u0432\u0435\u0434\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0434\u0430\u043d \u0442\u0430\u0448<\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0440\u0438 \u0445\u0430\u043b<\/span>\u049b<\/span>  <\/span>\u043e<\/span>\u0493<\/span>\u0437\u0430\u043a\u0438 \u0438\u0436\u043e\u0434\u0438 \u043d\u0430\u043c\u0443\u043d\u0430\u043b\u0430\u0440\u0438, \u0436\u0443\u043c\u043b\u0430\u0434\u0430\u043d,\n\u00ab\u041c\u0430\u0445\u0430\u0431\u0445\u0430\u0440\u0430\u0442\u0430\u00bb  <\/span>\u0430\u043c \u043c\u0443<\/span>\u04b3<\/span>\u0430\u0434\u0434\u0430\u0441 \u0451\u0437\u0443\u0432\u043b\u0430\u0440 \n<\/span><\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u0430\u0442\u043e\u0440\u0438\u0433\u0430 <\/span>\u049b<\/span>\u045e\u0448\u0438\u043b\u0433\u0430\u043d.  <\/span><\/span>\u04b2<\/span>\u0438\u043d\u0434\u0443\u0438\u0439\u043b\u0438\u043a\u0434\u0430  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